The metalorganic precursor cyclopentadienylethyl(dicarbonyl)ruthenium (CpRu(CO)2Et) was used to develop an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for ruthenium. O2 gas and O2 plasma were employed as reactants. For both processes, thermal and plasma-assisted ALD, a relatively high growth-per-cycle of 1Å was obtained. The Ru films were dense and polycrystalline, regardless of the reactant, yielding a resistivity of 16μΩcm. The O2 plasma not only enhanced the Ru nucleation on the TiN substrates but also led to an increased roughness compared to thermal ALD.

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