Low-energy hydrogen-ion bombardment is used to clean the surfaces of GaAs at and of Ge at . The H-ion beam produces contamination-free surfaces without changes in surface composition (stoichiometry) and surface roughness. The wafers were brought into contact at room temperature after cleaning under ultrahigh vacuum and bonded over the whole area without application of external mechanical pressure. High-resolution transmission-electron microscopy images reveal that the wafers were directly bonded without damage of the crystal lattice or intermediate layer and the interface is smooth. Current-voltage characterization shows near-ideal forward characteristics and the recombination in heterojunction of the space charge region.
Room-temperature ultrahigh vacuum bonding of heterojunction wafer using hydrogen ion beam surface cleaning
N. Razek, A. Schindler; Room-temperature ultrahigh vacuum bonding of heterojunction wafer using hydrogen ion beam surface cleaning. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1 September 2007; 25 (5): 1480–1483. https://doi.org/10.1116/1.2771557
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