In this study, from the observed x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy results, and Kelvin probe measurements, it is suggested that the induced indium-tin-oxide (ITO) surface chemical changes by KrF excimer laser irradiation had strong effects on the surface work function (SWF) and surface roughness of ITO. During the laser irradiation, the incorporation of O22 peroxo species or the dissolution of oxygen species near the ITO surface leads to the reduction of the surface roughness and an increase in the SWF. In addition, it is worth noting that the laser-irradiated ITO sample has an excellent stability in the SWF.

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