Nanopore arrays with 6×108–5×1010cm−2 pore densities were fabricated by self-organized anodization on aluminum. A two-step anodization process was used to oxidize aluminum in oxalic, sulfuric, and phosphoric acid solutions. Hexagonally ordered pore arrays were obtained within domains of a few micrometers, which are separated from neighboring domains with different orientation of the pore lattice by domain boundaries, i.e., the nanopore arrays show characteristics analogous to two-dimensional polycrystalline structure. The interpore distance can be controlled by changing the electrolyte and/or the applied voltage.

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