A number of reconstructions have been observed on the (110) surface of in the rutile modification that accommodates oxygen deficiency. We present atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscope images that describe a new reconstruction with symmetry. A model for the observed reconstruction is discussed where this symmetry is achieved by removing or of the oxygen in the bridging oxygen rows such that a shift in position of missing oxygen by one lattice space vector along the  direction occurs in every second row. This structure contrasts those reported previously in which entire rows are modified or removed. Furthermore, nanometer-sized Cu islands on (110) surfaces fabricated by vapor deposition onto at 200 °C were studied by conventional and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our TEM studies show that Cu forms faceted islands (40 nm in width) on the surface with the orientation relationship given by and The orientation relationship differs from that resulting from room temperature deposition onto stoichiometric surfaces.
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Research Article| May 01 1998
Nonstoichiometry on (110) and interfaces
D. A. Bonnell;
M. Wagner, O. Kienzle, D. A. Bonnell, M. Rühle; Nonstoichiometry on (110) and interfaces. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1 May 1998; 16 (3): 1078–1085. https://doi.org/10.1116/1.581236
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