In this study, we describe the fabrication of hydrogen gas sensors in the form of nanocomposites containing metal oxides such as copper oxide (CuO), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and polyaniline (PANI) using a green synthesis method. We used Macaranga indica (M. indica) leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent to prepare copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs). The sample was analyzed using various techniques to determine its physicochemical, morphological, and elemental composition. The XRD data showed that the sample is a CuO/PANI/MWCNT nanocomposite by the best match with the reported data. SEM images revealed a uniform distribution of MWCNTs and spherical CuO nanoparticles of 30–40 nm throughout the CNT network. EDX confirmed that the prepared sample is a pure and inline combination of Cu, O, C, and N. Due to the presence of bioactive elements and PANI, we observed 17% and 25% weight loss for CuO and CuO/PANI/MWCNTs. It was found that this combination of materials can detect H2 gas in concentrations ranging from 110 to 2 ppm at temperatures of 200 and 250 °C. As H2 concentration increased, sensitivity varied from 5% to 20%, but response and recovery times were about 290 and 500 s, respectively, for 40 ppm H2 gas. A logistic function fit to Ra/Rg versus H2 was performed using Y = A2 + (A1 − A2)/(1 + (x/x0)p). The energy bands among the CuO/PANI/MWCNT heterointerfaces were used to demonstrate enhanced H2 gas-sensing properties.

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