High energy traumas could cause critical damage to bone, which will require permanent implants to recover while functionally integrating with the host bone. Critical sized bone defects necessitate the use of bioactive metallic implants. Because of bioinertness, various methods involving surface modifications such as surface treatments, the development of novel alloys, bioceramic/bioglass coatings, and biofunctional molecule grafting have been utilized to effectively integrate metallic implants with a living bone. However, the applications of these methods demonstrated a need for an interphase layer improving bone-making to overcome two major risk factors: aseptic loosening and peri-implantitis. To accomplish a biologically functional bridge with the host to prevent loosening, regenerative cues, osteoimmunomodulatory modifications, and electrochemically resistant layers against corrosion appeared as imperative reinforcements. In addition, interphases carrying antibacterial cargo were proven to be successful against peri-implantitis. In the literature, metallic implant coatings employing natural polymers as the main matrix were presented as bioactive interphases, enabling rapid, robust, and functional osseointegration with the host bone. However, a comprehensive review of natural polymer coatings, bridging and grafting on metallic implants, and their activities has not been reported. In this review, state-of-the-art studies on multifunctional natural polymer-based implant coatings effectively utilized as a bone tissue engineering (BTE) modality are depicted. Protein-based, polysaccharide-based coatings and their combinations to achieve better osseointegration via the formation of an extracellular matrix-like (ECM-like) interphase with gap filling and corrosion resistance abilities are discussed in detail. The hypotheses and results of these studies are examined and criticized, and the potential future prospects of multifunctional coatings are also proposed as final remarks.
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Review Article| April 27 2021
Multifunctional natural polymer-based metallic implant surface modifications
Ahmet Engin Pazarçeviren;
Ahmet Engin Pazarçeviren, Ayşen Tezcaner, Zafer Evis; Multifunctional natural polymer-based metallic implant surface modifications. Biointerphases 1 March 2021; 16 (2): 020803. https://doi.org/10.1116/6.0000876
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