The modeling, fabrication, cell loading, and mechanical and in vitro biological testing of biomimetic, interlockable, laser-made, concentric 3D scaffolds are presented. The scaffolds are made by multiphoton polymerization of an organic–inorganic zirconium silicate. Their mechanical properties are theoretically modeled using finite elements analysis and experimentally measured using a Microsquisher®. They are subsequently loaded with preosteoblastic cells, which remain live after 24 and 72 h. The interlockable scaffolds have maintained their ability to fuse with tissue spheroids. This work represents a novel technological platform, enabling the rapid, laser-based, in situ 3D tissue biofabrication.

1.
R.
Langer
and
J. P.
Vacanti
,
Science
260
,
920
(
1993
).
2.
V.
Mironov
,
T.
Boland
,
T.
Trusk
,
G.
Forgacs
, and
R. R.
Markwald
,
Trends Biotechnol.
21
,
157
(
2003
).
3.
V.
Mironov
,
V.
Kasyanov
,
C.
Drake
, and
R. R.
Markwald
,
Regener. Med.
3
,
93
(
2008
).
4.
V.
Mironov
,
R. P.
Visconti
,
V.
Kasyanov
,
G.
Forgacs
,
C. J.
Drake
, and
R. R.
Markwald
,
Biomaterials
30
,
2164
(
2009
).
7.
R.
Gauvin
and
A.
Khademhosseini
,
ACS Nano
5
,
4258
(
2011
).
8.
N. N.
Kachouie
,
Y. A.
Du
,
H.
Bae
,
M.
Khabiry
,
A. F.
Ahari
,
B.
Zamanian
,
J.
Fukuda
, and
A.
Khademhosseini
,
Organogenesis
6
,
234
(
2010
).
9.
C.
Norotte
,
F. S.
Marga
,
L. E.
Niklason
, and
G.
Forgacs
,
Biomaterials
30
,
5910
(
2009
).
10.
T.
Billiet
,
M.
Vandenhaute
,
J.
Schelfhout
,
S.
Van Vlierberghe
, and
P.
Dubruel
,
Biomaterials
33
,
6020
(
2012
).
11.
T. G.
Kirn
,
S. H.
Park
,
H. J.
Chung
,
D. Y.
Yang
, and
T. G.
Park
,
Adv. Funct. Mater.
20
,
2303
(
2010
).
12.
B. S.
Schon
,
K.
Schrobback
,
M.
van der Ven
,
S.
Stroebel
,
G. J.
Hooper
, and
T. B. F.
Woodfield
,
Cell Tissue Res.
347
,
629
(
2012
).
13.
R. A.
Rezende
 et al,
Virtual Phys. Prototyping
7
,
287
(
2012
).
14.
M.
Malinauskas
,
M.
Farsari
,
A.
Piskarskas
, and
S.
Juodkazis
,
Phys. Rep.
533
,
1
(
2013
).
15.
M.-A.
Alubaidy
, “
Fabrication of nanofibers reinforced polymer microstructures using femtosecond laser material processing
,” Ph.D. thesis (
Yeates School of Graduate Studies, Ryerson University
,
2012
).
16.
S.
Obi
,
Replicated Optical Microstructures in Hybrid Polymers: Process Technology and Applications
(
University of Neuchâtel
,
Neuchâtel
,
2006
).
17.
K. H.
Haas
and
H.
Wolter
,
Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.
4
,
571
(
1999
).
18.
Y. L.
Zhang
,
Q. D.
Chen
,
H.
Xia
, and
H. B.
Sun
,
Nano Today
5
,
435
(
2010
).
19.
S. J.
Hollister
,
Nat. Mater.
4
,
518
(
2005
).
20.
F.
Guillemot
 et al,
Acta Biomater.
6
,
2494
(
2010
).
21.
J. M.
Williams
,
A.
Adewunmi
,
R. M.
Schek
,
C. L.
Flanagan
,
P. H.
Krebsbach
,
S. E.
Feinberg
,
S. J.
Hollister
, and
S.
Das
,
Biomaterials
26
,
4817
(
2005
).
22.
F. E.
Wiria
,
K. F.
Leong
,
C. K.
Chua
, and
Y.
Liu
,
Acta Biomater.
3
,
1
(
2007
).
23.
A.
Selimis
,
V.
Mironov
, and
M.
Farsari
,
Microelectron. Eng.
132
,
83
(
2015
).
24.
M. T.
Raimondi
,
S. M.
Eaton
,
M. M.
Nava
,
M.
Laganà
,
G.
Cerullo
, and
R.
Osellame
,
J. Appl. Biomater. Fundam. Mater.
10
,
56
(
2012
).
25.
A.
Ovsianikov
,
V.
Mironov
,
J.
Stampfl
, and
R.
Liska
,
Expert Rev. Med. Devices
9
,
613
(
2012
).
26.
V.
Melissinaki
,
A. A.
Gill
,
I.
Ortega
,
M.
Vamvakaki
,
A.
Ranella
,
J. W.
Haycock
,
C.
Fotakis
,
M.
Farsari
, and
F.
Claeyssens
,
Biofabrication
3
,
045005
(
2011
).
27.
I.
Sakellari
 et al,
Appl. Phys. A
100
,
359
(
2010
).
28.
N.
Vasilantonakis
,
K.
Terzaki
,
I.
Sakellari
,
V.
Purlys
,
D.
Gray
,
C. M.
Soukoulis
,
M.
Vamvakaki
,
M.
Kafesaki
, and
M.
Farsari
,
Adv. Mater.
24
,
1101
(
2012
).
29.
M.
Chatzinikolaidou
,
S.
Rekstyte
,
P.
Danilevicius
,
C.
Pontikoglou
,
H.
Papadaki
,
M.
Farsari
, and
M.
Vamvakaki
,
Mater. Sci. Eng.: C
48
,
301
(
2015
).
30.
K.
Terzaki
,
M.
Kissamitaki
,
A.
Skarmoutsou
,
C.
Fotakis
,
C. A.
Charitidis
,
M.
Farsari
,
M.
Vamvakaki
, and
M.
Chatzinikolaidou
,
J. Biomed. Mater. Res., Part A
101
,
2283
(
2013
).
31.
K.
Terzaki
 et al,
Biofabrication
5
,
045002
(
2013
).
32.
A.
Skarmoutsou
,
G.
Lolas
,
C. A.
Charitidis
,
M.
Chatzinikolaidou
,
M.
Vamvakaki
, and
M.
Farsari
,
J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater.
25
,
48
(
2013
).
33.
K.
Terzaki
,
N.
Vasilantonakis
,
A.
Gaidukeviciute
,
C.
Reinhardt
,
C.
Fotakis
,
M.
Vamvakaki
, and
M.
Farsari
,
Opt. Mater. Express
1
,
586
(
2011
).
34.
A.
Ovsianikov
 et al,
ACS Nano
2
,
2257
(
2008
).
35.
I.
Sakellari
,
E.
Kabouraki
,
D.
Gray
,
V.
Purlys
,
C.
Fotakis
,
A.
Pikulin
,
N.
Bityurin
,
M.
Vamvakaki
, and
M.
Farsari
,
ACS Nano
6
,
2302
(
2012
).
37.
C. A.
Pattin
,
W. E.
Caler
, and
D. R.
Carter
,
J. Biomech.
29
,
69
(
1996
).
38.
B.-H.
Yoon
,
W.-Y.
Choi
,
H.-E.
Kim
,
J.-H.
Kim
, and
Y.-H.
Koh
,
Scr. Mater.
58
,
537
(
2008
).
39.
M. T.
Raimondi
,
S. M.
Eaton
,
M.
Lagana
,
V.
Aprile
,
M. M.
Nava
,
G.
Cerullo
, and
R.
Osellame
,
Acta Biomater.
9
,
4579
(
2013
).
40.
S. A.
Skoog
,
A. K.
Nguyen
,
G.
Kumar
,
J. W.
Zheng
,
P. L.
Goering
,
A.
Koroleva
,
B. N.
Chichkov
, and
R. J.
Narayan
,
Biointerphases
9
,
029014
(
2014
).
41.
K.
Obata
,
A.
El-Tamer
,
L.
Koch
,
U.
Hinze
, and
B. N.
Chichkov
,
Light: Sci. Appl.
2
,
e116
(
2013
).
42.
G.
Vizsnyiczai
,
L.
Kelemen
, and
P.
Ormos
,
Opt. Express
22
,
24217
(
2014
).
43.
K.
Obata
,
J.
Koch
,
U.
Hinze
, and
B. N.
Chichkov
,
Opt. Express
18
,
17193
(
2010
).
You do not currently have access to this content.