Static electric fields have a negligible influence on the electric and transport properties of a metal because of the screening effect. This belief was extended to conventional metallic superconductors. However, recent experiments have shown that the superconductor properties can be controlled and manipulated by the application of strong electrostatic fields. Here, the authors review the experimental results obtained in the realization of field-effect metallic superconducting devices exploiting this phenomenon. The authors start by presenting the pioneering results on superconducting Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer wires and nanoconstriction Josephson junctions (Dayem bridges) made of different materials, such as titanium, aluminum, and vanadium. Then, the authors show the mastering of the Josephson supercurrent in superconductor-normal metal-superconductor proximity transistors, suggesting that the presence of induced superconducting correlations is enough to see this unconventional field-effect. Later, the authors present the control of the interference pattern in a superconducting quantum interference device, indicating the coupling of the electric field with the superconducting phase. The authors conclude this review by discussing some devices that may represent a breakthrough in superconducting quantum and classical computation.
Field-effect control of metallic superconducting systems
Federico Paolucci, Giorgio De Simoni, Paolo Solinas, Elia Strambini, Claudio Puglia, Nadia Ligato, Francesco Giazotto; Field-effect control of metallic superconducting systems. AVS Quantum Sci. 1 December 2019; 1 (1): 016501. https://doi.org/10.1116/1.5129364
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