This work investigates how pitch and dynamics influence the characters of the piano, celeste, and harp. We conducted listening tests where listeners gave absolute judgements on these sounds over ten emotional categories, and analyzed the data with logistic regression. With respect to pitch, the categories Happy, Romantic, Comic, Calm, and Shy had an arched shape that peaked around C6. Heroic, Angry, and Sad decreased with pitch. Mysterious did not show a clear trend with pitch. Scary had an asymmetric U-shape that was especially strong at the lowest pitch. With respect to dynamics, Happy, Heroic, Comic, and Angry were stronger for loud notes, whereas Romantic, Calm, Mysterious, Shy, and Sad were stronger for soft notes. For Scary, loud and soft notes were about the same. Overall, pitch and dynamics had about an equally important effect on the piano, celeste, and harp emotional characteristics. Some characteristics such as Happy were affected more by pitch, while others such as Shy were affected more by dynamics. The emotional characteristics of the piano, celeste, and harp were largely similar for most categories, though there were some differences for categories such as Mysterious.

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