Acoustic array processing can be employed to measure the wind speed and direction based on microphone signals. Turbulent pressure fluctuations picked up by microphones are referred to as wind noise. According to Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, turbulent eddies retain their shape while advecting at nearly the mean wind speed and in the wind direction. Consequently, wind noise propagates across a microphone array when the inter-microphone distance is smaller than the turbulence wavelength. This property can be exploited to track the orientation of the turbulence advection and hence to characterize the wind flow. We propose beamforming and signal subspace-based methods to estimate the wind speed and direction using a compact microphone array. In particular, the pseudo-spectrum of measured wind noise is computed against candidate pairs of wind speed and direction. The wind speed and direction estimates are then obtained as the maximizers of the pseudo-spectrum. In addition, we extend an existing time difference of arrival-based method originally derived for three microphones to an arbitrary number of microphones. We evaluate the estimation accuracy of the proposed methods separately for the wind speed and direction. Possible applications include highly integrable, portable, and inexpensive anemometers for smart sensors or action cameras.
Pseudo-spectrum based methods for estimating the wind speed and direction based on closely spaced microphone signals
Daniele Mirabilii, Emanuel A. P. Habets; Pseudo-spectrum based methods for estimating the wind speed and direction based on closely spaced microphone signals. Proc. Mtgs. Acoust. 8 May 2023; 51 (1): 022003. https://doi.org/10.1121/2.0001737
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