Modeling and numerical simulation of bubble clouds induced by intense ultrasound waves are conducted to quantify the effect of cloud cavitation on burst wave lithotripsy, a proposed non-invasive alternative to shock wave lithotripsy that uses pulses of ultrasound with an amplitude of O(1) MPa and a frequency of O(100) kHz. A unidirectional acoustic source model and an Eulerian-Lagrangian method are developed for simulation of ultrasound generation from a multi-element array transducer and cavitation bubbles, respectively. Parametric simulations of the spherical bubble cloud dynamics reveal a new scaling parameter that dictates both the structure of the bubble cloud and the amplitude of the far-field, bubble-scattered acoustics. The simulation further shows that a thin layer of bubble clouds nucleated near a kidney stone model can shield up to 90% of the incoming wave energy, indicating a potential loss of efficacy during the treatment due to cavitation. Strong correlations are identified between the far-field, bubble-scattered acoustics and the magnitude of the shielding, which could be used for ultrasound monitoring of cavitation during treatments. The simulations are validated by companion experiments in vitro.
Modeling and numerical simulation of the bubble cloud dynamics in an ultrasound field for burst wave lithotripsy
Kazuki Maeda, Tim Colonius, Adam Maxwell, Wayne Kreider, Michael Bailey; Modeling and numerical simulation of the bubble cloud dynamics in an ultrasound field for burst wave lithotripsy. Proc. Mtgs. Acoust. 5 November 2018; 35 (1): 020006. https://doi.org/10.1121/2.0000946
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