Vibrato is a fundamental feature of many musical sounds, with vocal, stringed instrument, and many wind instrumental performances employing vibrato as a principal device for conveying musical expression. In this paper, we describe a signal processing toolbox for extracting and analyzing vibrato-related parameters from audio recordings. In our method, sonic partials of a musical sound are separated first, followed by tracking of the instantaneous amplitude and frequency of each partial. A number of parameters that characterize vibrato can then be extracted from the tracked partials; these include the common frequency of the amplitude modulation (AM) and the frequency modulation (FM), the modulation depths, the relative phase between the AM and FM components of each partial, and the harmonic contents of the modulation components. This then enables a detailed comparison of the vibrato of various musical sounds, for example the relative amounts of AM and FM, the rate of vibrato, the correlation and phase between AM and FM vibrato components, and many other features. This framework provides a useful tool for applications such as music performance pedagogy and musicological studies.

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