The conventional method of evaluating soundscapes involves utilizing questionnaires or soundwalks to assess people's perceptions of a chosen acoustic environment. This research aims to propose an interactive approach for soundscape assessment research based on participatory design. The method was applied to investigate the relationship between audio-visual elements and soundscape perceptions in residential areas using a virtual reality (VR) environment. Thirty-two participants were invited to interactively design the audio-visual environment they perceived as the most eventful or vibrant, both outdoors and indoors. The result indicated that participants preferred open visual environments and more greenery in vibrant scenes, while favoring semi-closed buildings and reduced greenery in eventful scenes. Besides, the result revealed that people in the indoor context might be more sensitive to traffic sound than those in the outdoor context. These results were consistent with those obtained through traditional assessment methods, thereby suggesting the potential of this approach as an evaluation method for future soundscape research.

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