In acoustics, time reversal processing may be used to focus sound to a selected spatial location. Recently, the nonlinear characteristics of time-reversalfocusing at amplitudes as high as 200 dB have been reported [Patchett and Anderson, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 151(6), (2022)]. These studies were experimental in nature and suggested that converging waves nonlinearly interact in the focusing of waves, leading to surprising observations of nonlinear amplification. This study investigates the nonlinear interactions and subsequent characteristics from a model-based approach. Utilizing both the k-Wave© package for MATLAB©, and COMSOL Multiphysics©, it is shown that nonlinear interactions between high-amplitude waves leads to free-space Mach-wave coalescence of the converging waves. The number of waves used in both models represents a small piece of the full aperture of converging waves experimentally. Limiting the number of waves limits the number of Mach-stem formations and reduces the nonlinear growth of thefocus amplitudes when compared to experiment. However, limiting the number of waves allows the identification of individual Mach waves. Mach wave coalescence leading to Mach-stem formation appears to be the mechanism behind nonlinear amplification of peak focus amplitudes observed in high amplitude time reversal focusing.
Modeling free space Mach stem formation in high-amplitude focusing of sound using time reversal
Brian D. Patchett, Brian E. Anderson, Adam D. Kingsley; Modeling free space Mach stem formation in high-amplitude focusing of sound using time reversal. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 1 March 2023; 153 (3_supplement): A282. https://doi.org/10.1121/10.0018851
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