The speed of light in air is dependent on the air's instantaneous density. Since air density is modulated by sound, sound in the air can be observed and measured using optical methods. One such optical method is Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV). Most commonly, LDVs measure the mechanical velocity of a surface. However, by placing a rigid reflector beneath a sound beam in air, it is possible to measure the time rate-of-change of optical refractive index and thus to measure dynamic changes in air density, or sound. In prior demonstrations, this method has been used to visualize sound fields in the audible frequency range and ultrasonic range underwater. Here, we present the first measurements of high-intensity airborne ultrasound beams in the frequency range spanning 100 kHz–300 kHz. We observe accumulated distortion, wave steepening, and weak shock formation as high intensity sound beams propagate. LDV measurements are compared against numerical simulations of the sound field. Advantages of the LDV technique are discussed, and we also attempt to quantify limitations of the technique which include spatial averaging of the measurand along and normal to the optical beam path.