An experiment to measure phase (travel time) and intensity fluctuations in sound pulses transmitted at 2, 4, 8, and 13 kHz over an 18.1 km wholly refracted Fermat path is discussed. Simultaneously with the acoustic monitoring the index of refraction fluctuations were measured in space and time with sufficient resolution to determine the correlation function of the medium. The site was the Cobb Seamount in the northeast Pacific (46°46′N, 130°47′ W), and the time period was 30 days in June–July, 1977. In terms of both the quality and quantity of acoustic and oceanographic measurements, this experiment represents a significant improvement over an earlier experiment in the same location [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 60, 46–59 (1976)]. The acoustic measurements cover a wider range of acoustic frequencies and more closely represent measurements from a single Fermat path. Approximately 25% of the acoustic data are discussed here; the representations of the correlation function of the index of refraction are based on all of the oceanographic data. The physical processes responsible for the fluctuations in the index of refraction are those due to the tides, internal waves, and finestructure. The effects of internal waves are treated in detail. The moments of the observed intensity fluctuations are discussed, as are the spectral distributions of the second moments of phase and intensity. The observations are compared with theoretical predictions based on the Rytov approximation and on a multiple scatter formulation (approximate solution to the fourth moment equation).

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