A layered method of calculating the ray parameters of range, intensity, and travel time has been developed in which the sound speed c in a layer is the following function of depth z: c2 = (a1z2+a2z+a3)−1 where a1, a2, and a3 are constants. These constants are chosen so that (dc/dz)'s match at layer boundaries, thus creating a depth/sound‐speed profile that has a continuous first derivative. Some ray characteristics using this type of model have also been studied. The major difficulty with this method is the creation of an excess number of maxima, minima, and points of inflection in the profile if the layer boundaries are not chosen properly. This difficulty can be demonstrated through the use of a sample calculation.

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