The theory for the diffraction of light by plane ultrasonic waves of various standing wave ratios is derived. The liquid medium disturbed by the ultrasound is considered to act as an optical phase grating. By evaluating the diffraction integral for the light amplitude, expressions for the Doppler shift, the time dependent, and the time average light intensities are found for the diffraction spectrum. Experimental measurements using two adjacent ultrasonic waves progressing in opposite directions to simulate the desired optical phase grating indicate that the theory is valid.

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