Acoustic wave propagation in a one-dimensional periodic and asymmetric duct is studied theoretically and numerically to derive the effective properties. Closed form expressions for these effective properties, including the asymmetric Willis coupling, are derived through truncation of the Peano–Baker series expansion of the matricant (which links the state vectors at the two sides of the unit-cell) and Padé's approximation of the matrix exponential. The results of the first-order and second-order homogenization (with Willis coupling) procedures are compared with the numerical results. The second-order homogenization procedure provides scattering coefficients that are valid over a much larger frequency range than the usual first-order procedure. The frequency well below which the effective description is valid is compared with the lower bound of the first Bragg bandgap when the profile is approximated by a two-step function of identical indicator function, i.e., two different cross-sectional areas over the same length. This validity limit is then questioned, particularly with a focus on impedance modeling. This article attempts to facilitate the engineering use of Willis materials.

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