A numerical model for cavitation in blood is developed based on the Keller–Miksis equation for spherical bubble dynamics with the Carreau model to represent the non-Newtonian behavior of blood. Three different pressure waveforms driving the bubble oscillations are considered: a single-cycle Gaussian waveform causing free growth and collapse, a sinusoidal waveform continuously driving the bubble, and a multi-cycle pulse relevant to contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Parameters in the Carreau model are fit to experimental measurements of blood viscosity. In the Carreau model, the relaxation time constant is 5–6 orders of magnitude larger than the Rayleigh collapse time. As a result, non-Newtonian effects do not significantly modify the bubble dynamics but do give rise to variations in the near-field stresses as non-Newtonian behavior is observed at distances 10–100 initial bubble radii away from the bubble wall. For sinusoidal forcing, a scaling relation is found for the maximum non-Newtonian length, as well as for the shear stress, which is 3 orders of magnitude larger than the maximum bubble radius.
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March 20 2023
Dynamics of an oscillating microbubble in a blood-like Carreau fluid
Mauro Rodriguez, Jr. ;
Eric Hersey, Mauro Rodriguez, Eric Johnsen; Dynamics of an oscillating microbubble in a blood-like Carreau fluid. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 1 March 2023; 153 (3): 1836–1845. https://doi.org/10.1121/10.0017342
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