Sea ice and freshwater ice can be different in terms of physical and acoustic characteristics, such as density, salinity, etc. In this paper, under-ice ambient noise in the Mudan river (Jilin Province, Northeast of China) is analyzed using the data recorded by autonomous hydrophones to test if the river ice environment is an effective analog for studying under-ice noise of multi-year ice sheets in the Arctic. The noise spectrum level below 250 Hz and above 1 kHz decreases linearly with the increase in the logarithmic frequency in a quiet environment. The ice cracks are detected and extracted, and Pearson correlation analysis between meteorological information and cracks is carried out. Frequency correlation matrixes are calculated to obtain the correlation between pairs of frequencies and evaluate the frequency correlation of ice crack noise of two hydrophones under different depths, different distances, and different times. Finally, the paper compares the experimental results with Arctic under-ice noise in the literature. Similarities with Arctic under-ice noise are observed in the experiment, including noise spectrum, cracks' peak frequency, and correlations between temperature and crack intensity. This paper believes that the study of under-ice noise in freshwater rivers can be used to simulate multi-year ice regions in the Arctic in terms of thermal-induced cracks and meteorological correlation. And future research is needed to prove this judgment further.
Ambient noise under stably covered icea)
Also at: Key Laboratory of Marine Information Acquisition and Security, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, 150001, China.
Xueli Sheng, Chaoping Dong, Longxiang Guo, Jingwei Yin; Ambient noise under stably covered ice. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 1 October 2021; 150 (4): 3074–3084. https://doi.org/10.1121/10.0006792
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