Environmental risk assessment for impact pile driving requires characterization of the radiated sound field. Damped cylindrical spreading (DCS) describes propagation of the acoustic Mach cone generated by striking a pile and predicts sound exposure level (LE) versus range. For known water depth and sediment properties, DCS permits extrapolation from a measurement at a known range. Impact assessment criteria typically involve zero-to-peak sound pressure level (Lp,pk), root-mean-square sound pressure level (Lp,rms), and cumulative sound exposure level (LE,cum). To facilitate predictions using DCS, Lp,pk and Lp,rms were estimated from LE using empirical regressions. Using a wind farm construction scenario in the North Sea, DCS was applied to estimate ranges to recommended thresholds in fishes. For 3500 hammer strikes, the estimated LE,cum impact ranges for mortal and recoverable injury were up to 1.8 and 3.1 km, respectively. Applying a 10 dB noise abatement measure, these distances reduced to 0.29 km for mortal injury and 0.65 km for recoverable injury. An underlying detail that produces unstable results is the averaging time for calculating Lp,rms, which by convention is equal to the 90%-energy signal duration. A stable alternative is proposed for this quantity based on the effective signal duration.

1.
Ainslie
,
M. A.
(
2010
).
Principles of Sonar Performance Modeling
(
Springer-Verlag
,
Heidelberg)
, pp.
198
, 535.
2.
Ainslie
,
M. A.
,
Dahl
,
P. H.
,
de Jong
,
C. A. F.
, and
Laws
,
R. M.
(
2014
). “
Practical spreading laws: The snakes and ladders of shallow water acoustics
,” in
Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Underwater Acoustics
, June 22–27,
Rhodes, Greece
, pp.
22
27
.
3.
Ainslie
,
M. A.
,
de Jong
,
C. A.
,
Robinson
,
S. P.
, and
Lepper
P. A.
(
2012
). “
What is the source level of pile-driving noise in water?
,” in
The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life
, edited by
A. N.
Popper
and
A.
Hawkins
(
Springer
,
New York
), pp.
445
448
.
4.
Buehler
,
D.
,
Oestman
,
R.
,
Reyff
,
J.
,
Pommerenck
,
K.
, and
Mitchell
,
B.
(
2015
). “
Technical guidance for assessment and mitigation of the hydroacoustic effects of pile driving on fish
,” California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) Report No. CTHWANP-RT-15-306.01.01 (California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, CA), pp.
4
21
.
5.
Burdic
,
W. S.
(
1991
).
Underwater Acoustic System Analysis
(
Prentice-Hall
,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
), p.
222
.
6.
Casper
,
B. M.
,
Halvorsen
,
M. B.
,
Carlson
,
T. J.
, and
Popper
,
A. N.
(
2017
). “
Onset of barotrauma injuries related to number of pile driving strike exposures in hybrid striped bass
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
141
,
4380
4387
.
7.
Casper
,
B. M.
,
Halvorsen
,
M. B.
,
Matthews
,
F.
,
Carlson
,
T. J.
, and
Popper
,
A. N.
(
2013a
). “
Recovery of barotrauma injuries resulting from exposure to pile driving sounds in two sizes of hybrid striped bass
,”
PLoS One
8
(
9
),
e73844
.
8.
Casper
,
B. M.
,
Popper
,
A. N.
,
Matthews
,
F.
,
Carlson
,
T. J.
, and
Halvorsen
,
M. B.
(
2012
). “
Recovery of barotrauma injuries in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from exposure to pile driving sound
,”
PLoS One
7
(
6
),
e39593
.
9.
Casper
,
B. M.
,
Smith
,
M. E.
,
Halvorsen
,
M. B.
,
Sun
,
H.
,
Carlson
,
T. J.
, and
Popper
,
A.
(
2013b
). “
Effects of exposure to pile driving sounds on fish inner ear tissues
,”
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A
166
,
352
360
.
10.
Dahl
,
P. H.
,
Reinhall
,
P. G.
, and
Farrell
D. M.
(
2012
). “
Transmission loss and range, depth scales associated with impact pile driving
,” in
Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Underwater Acoustics
, July 2–6, Edinburgh, UK (Vol. 34, pp. 1860–1867).
11.
Dähne
,
M.
,
Gilles
,
A.
,
Lucke
,
K.
,
Peschko
,
V.
,
Adler
,
S.
,
Krügel
,
K.
,
Sundermeyer
,
J.
, and
Siebert
,
U.
(
2013
). “
Effects of pile-driving on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) at the first offshore wind farm in Germany
,”
Environ. Res. Lett.
8
(
2
),
025002
.
12.
Finneran
,
J. J.
(
2015
). “
Noise-induced hearing loss in marine mammals: A review of temporary threshold shift studies from 1996 to 2015
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
138
,
1702
1726
.
13.
Finneran
,
J. J.
,
Dear
,
R.
,
Carder
,
D. A.
, and
Ridgway
,
S. H.
(
2003
). “
Auditory and behavioral responses of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) to single underwater impulses from an arc-gap transducer
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
114
,
1667
1677
.
14.
Finneran
,
J. J.
,
Schlundt
,
C. E.
,
Branstetter
,
B. K.
,
Trickey
,
J. S.
,
Bowman
,
V.
, and
Jenkins
,
K.
(
2015
). “
Effects of multiple impulses from a seismic air gun on bottlenose dolphin hearing and behavior
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
137
,
1634
1646
.
15.
Finneran
,
J. J.
,
Schlundt
,
C. E.
,
Carder
,
D. A.
,
Clark
,
J. A.
,
Young
,
J. A.
,
Gaspin
,
J. B.
, and
Ridgway
,
S. H.
(
2000
). “
Auditory and behavioral responses of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) to impulsive sounds resembling distant signatures of underwater explosions
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
108
,
417
431
.
16.
Finneran
,
J. J.
,
Schlundt
,
C. E.
,
Dear
,
R.
,
Carder
,
D. A.
, and
Ridgway
,
S. H.
(
2002
). “
Temporary shift in masked hearing thresholds in odontocetes after exposure to single underwater impulses from a seismic watergun
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
111
,
2929
2940
.
17.
Fuente
,
A.
,
Qiu
,
W.
,
Zhang
,
M.
,
Xie
,
H.
,
Kardous
,
C. A.
,
Campo
,
P.
, and
Morata
,
T. C.
(
2018
). “
Use of the kurtosis statistic in an evaluation of the effects of noise and solvent exposures on the hearing thresholds of workers: An exploratory study
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
143
(
3
),
1704
1710
.
18.
Goley
,
G. S.
,
Song
,
W. J.
, and
Kim
,
J. H.
(
2011
). “
Kurtosis corrected sound pressure level as a noise metric for risk assessment of occupational noises
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
129
(
3
),
1475
1481
.
19.
GARFO
(
2016
). “
Acoustic tool: Analyzing the effects of pile driving on ESA-listed species in the Greater Atlantic Region, Excel spreadsheet
,” U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Services, http://www.greateratlantic.fisheries.noaa.gov/protected/section7/guidance/consultation/index.html (Last viewed May 1, 2018).
20.
Halvorsen
,
M. B.
,
Casper
,
B. M.
,
Matthews
,
F.
,
Carlson
,
T. J.
, and
Popper
,
A. N.
(
2012a
). “
Effects of exposure to pile-driving sounds on the lake sturgeon, Nile tilapia and hogchoker
,”
Proc. R. Soc. B: Biol. Sci.
279
(
1748
),
4705
4714
.
21.
Halvorsen
,
M. B.
,
Casper
,
B. M.
,
Woodley
,
C. M.
,
Carlson
,
T. J.
, and
Popper
,
A. N.
(
2011
). “
Predicting and mitigating hydroacoustic impacts on fish from pile installations
,” NCHRP Research Results Digest 363, Project 25-28, National Cooperative Highway Research Program. Transportation Research Board (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC).
22.
Halvorsen
,
M. B.
,
Casper
,
B. M.
,
Woodley
,
C. M.
,
Carlson
,
T. J.
, and
Popper
,
A. N.
(
2012b
). “
Threshold for onset of injury in Chinook salmon from exposure to impulsive pile driving sounds
,”
PLoS One
7
(
6
),
e38968
.
23.
Hamernik
,
R. P.
, and
Qiu
,
W.
(
2001
). “
Energy-independent factors influencing noise-induced hearing loss in the chinchilla model
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
110
(
6
),
3163
3168
.
24.
Heaney
,
K. D.
,
Ainslie
,
M. A.
,
Halvorsen
,
M. B.
,
Seger
,
K. D.
,
Müller
,
R. A. J.
,
Nijhof
,
M. J. J.
, and
Lippert
,
T.
(
2020
). “
A parametric analysis and sensitivity study of the acoustic propagation for renewable energy sources and projects report
,” U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, OCS Study BOEM 2020-011, prepared by CSA Ocean Sciences Inc. (CSA Ocean Sciences, Stuart, FL), p.
165
.
25.
Heitmann
,
K.
(
2016
). “
Vorhersage des Unterwasserschalls bei Offshore-Rammarbeiten unter Berücksichtigung von Schallminderungsmaßnahmen
” (“Prediction of underwater noise during offshore pile driving, taking noise reduction measures into account”), Ph.D. thesis,
Hamburg University of Technology
, Hamburg, Germany.
26.
ISO
(
2015
). ISO 1683:2015,
Acoustics—Preferred Reference Values for Acoustical and Vibratory Levels
(
International Organization for Standardization
,
Geneva, Switzerland
).
27.
ISO
(
2017
). ISO 8405:2017,
Underwater Acoustics—Terminology
(
International Organization for Standardization
,
Geneva, Switzerland
).
28.
ITAP
(
2014
). “
Offshore Messkampagne 1 (OMK 1) für das Projekt BORA im Windpark BARD Offshore 1
” [“Offshore measurement campaign 1 (OMK1) for the project BORA at the offshore-wind farm Bard Offshore 1”], Version 7, Project Number: 1924 12 bm (ITAP, Wein, Austria).
29.
ITAP
(
2015a
). “Offshore Messkampagne 3 (OMK 3) für das Projekt BORA im Offshore-Windpark Borkum Riffgrund 01” [“Offshore measurement campaign 3 (OMK3) for the project BORA at the offshore-offshore-wind farm Borkum Riffgrund 01”], Version 2, Project Number: 2271-14-bel (ITAP, Wein, Austria).
30.
ITAP
(
2015b
). “
Offshore Messkampagne 2 (OMK 2) für das Projekt BORA im Offshore-Windpark Global Tech I
” [“Offshore measurement campaign 2 (OMK2) for the project BORA at the offshore-offshore-wind farm Global Tech I”], Version 4, Project Number: 2162-13-bel (ITAP, Wein, Austria).
31.
ITAP
(
2015c
). “
Offshore Wind Farm Eneco Luchterduinen, ecological monitoring of underwater noise during piling at Offshore Wind Farm Eneco Luchterduinen
,” Version 5, Project Number: 2322-14-bel (ITAP, Wein, Austria).
32.
ITAP
(
2015d
). “
Offshore Wind Farm Gemini, ecological monitoring of underwater noise during piling at Offshore Wind Farm Gemini
,” Version 1, Project Number: 2571-15 (ITAP, Wein, Austria).
33.
Kastelein
,
R. A.
,
Gransier
,
R.
,
Marijt
,
M. A.
, and
Hoek
,
L.
(
2015
). “
Hearing frequency thresholds of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) temporarily affected by played back offshore pile driving sounds
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
137
,
556
564
.
34.
Kastelein
,
R. A.
,
Helder-Hoek
,
L.
,
Covi
,
J.
, and
Gransier
,
R.
(
2016
). “
Pile driving playback sounds and temporary threshold shift in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena): Effect of exposure duration
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
139
,
2842
2851
.
35.
Kastelein
,
R. A.
,
Helder-Hoek
,
L.
,
Kommeren
,
A.
,
Covi
,
J.
, and
Gransier
,
R.
(
2018
). “
Effect of pile-driving sounds on harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) hearing
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
143
,
3583
3594
.
36.
Kastelein
,
R. A.
,
Helder-Hoek
,
L.
,
Van de Voorde
,
S.
,
von Benda-Beckmann
,
A. M.
,
Lam
,
F. P. A.
,
Jansen
,
E.
,
de Jong
,
C. A. F.
, and
Ainslie
,
M. A.
(
2017
). “
Temporary hearing threshold shift in a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) after exposure to multiple airgun sounds
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
142
,
2430
2442
.
37.
Lippert
,
S.
,
Nijhof
,
M.
,
Lippert
,
T.
,
Wilkes
,
D.
,
Gavrilov
,
A.
,
Heitmann
,
K.
, and
Ehrlich
,
J.
(
2016
). “
COMPILE—A generic benchmark case for predictions of marine pile-driving noise
,”
IEEE J. Oceanic Engineering
41
(
4
),
1061
1071
.
38.
Lippert
,
T.
,
Ainslie
,
M. A.
, and
von Estorff
,
O.
(
2018
). “
Pile driving acoustics made simple: Damped cylindrical spreading model
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
143
,
310
317
.
39.
Lippert
,
T.
,
Galindo-Romero
,
M.
,
Gavrilov
,
A. N.
, and
von Estorff
,
O.
(
2015
). “
Empirical estimation of peak pressure level from sound exposure level. Part II: Offshore impact pile driving noise
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
138
,
EL287
EL292
.
40.
Liu
,
H.
,
Zhang
,
J.
,
Guo
,
P.
,
Bi
,
F.
,
Yu
,
H.
, and
Ni
,
G.
(
2015
). “
Sound quality prediction for engine-radiated noise
,”
Mech. Syst. Signal Process.
56–57
,
277
287
.
41.
Lucke
,
K.
,
Siebert
,
U.
,
Lepper
,
P. A.
, and
Blanchet
,
M. A.
(
2009
). “
Temporary shift in masked hearing thresholds in a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) after exposure to seismic airgun stimuli
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
125
,
4060
4070
.
42.
Martin
,
S. B.
, and
Barclay
,
D. R.
(
2019
). “
Determining the dependence of marine pile driving sound levels on strike energy, pile penetration, and propagation effects using a linear mixed model based on damped cylindrical spreading
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
146
(
1
),
109
121
.
43.
Moors
,
J. J. A.
(
1986
). “
The meaning of kurtosis: Darlington reexamined
,”
Am. Stat.
40
(
4
),
283
.
44.
Müller
,
R. A. J.
,
von Benda-Beckmann
,
A. M.
,
Halvorsen
,
M. B.
, and
Ainslie
,
M. A.
(
2020
). “
Application of kurtosis to underwater sound
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
(in press).
45.
NMFS
(
2018
). “
2018 Revisions to: Technical guidance for assessing the effects of anthropogenic sound on marine mammal hearing (version 2.0): Underwater thresholds for onset of permanent and temporary threshold shifts
,” NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-59, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/resource/document/technical-guidance-assessing-effects-anthropogenic-sound-marine-mammal (Last viewed August 28, 2018).
46.
Popper
,
A. N.
,
Hawkins
,
A. D.
,
Fay
,
R. R.
,
Mann
,
D. A.
,
Bartol
,
S.
,
Carlson
,
T. J.
,
Coombs
,
S.
,
Ellison
,
W. T.
,
Gentry
,
R. L.
,
Halvorsen
,
M. B.
,
Løkkeborg
,
S.
,
Rogers
,
P. H.
,
Southall
,
B. L.
,
Zeddies
,
D. G.
, and
Tavolga
,
W. N.
(
2014
).
Sound Exposure Guidelines for Fishes and Sea Turtles: A Technical Report Prepared by ANSI-Accredited Standards Committee S3/SC1 and Registered with ANSI, ASA S3/SC1. 4 TR-2014
(
Springer
,
Heidelberg
).
47.
Reinhall
,
P. G.
, and
Dahl
,
P. H.
(
2011
). “
Underwater Mach wave radiation from impact pile driving: Theory and observation
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
130
,
1209
1216
.
48.
Scholik-Schlomer
,
A.
(
2015
). “
Where the decibels hit the water: Perspectives on the application of science to real-world underwater noise and marine protected species issues
,”
Acoust. Today
11
(
3
),
36
44
.
49.
Southall
,
B. L.
,
Bowles
,
A. E.
,
Ellison
,
W. T.
,
Finneran
,
J. J.
,
Gentry
,
R. L.
,
Greene
,
C. R.
, Jr.
,
Kastak
,
D.
,
Ketten
,
D. R.
,
Miller
,
J. H.
,
Nachtigall
,
P. E.
,
Richardson
,
W. J.
,
Thomas
,
J. A.
, and
Tyack
,
P. L.
(
2007
). “
Marine mammal noise exposure criteria: Initial scientific recommendations
,”
Aquat. Mam.
33
(
4
),
1
121
.
50.
Southall
,
B. L.
,
Finneran
,
J. J.
,
Reichmuth
,
C.
,
Nachtigall
,
P. E.
,
Ketten
,
D. R.
,
Bowles
,
A. E.
,
Ellison
,
W. T.
,
Nowacek
,
D. P.
, and
Tyack
,
P. L.
(
2019
). “
Marine mammal noise exposure criteria: Updated scientific recommendations for residual hearing effects
,”
Aquat. Mam.
45
(
2
),
125
232
.
51.
Tougaard
,
J.
,
Carstensen
,
J.
,
Teilmann
,
J.
,
Skov
,
H.
, and
Rasmussen
,
P.
(
2009
). “
Pile driving zone of responsiveness extends beyond 20 km for harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena (L.))
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
126
,
11
14
.
52.
Zampolli
,
M.
,
Nijhof
,
M. J. J.
,
de Jong
,
C. A. F.
,
Ainslie
,
M. A.
,
Jansen
,
E. H.
, and
Quesson
,
B. A. J.
(
2013
). “
Validation of finite element computations for the quantitative prediction of underwater noise from impact pile driving
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
133
,
72
81
.
You do not currently have access to this content.