Ventricular folds (VeFs) act as passive, non-moving structures during normal phonation. According to the literature, VeFs potentially aid the flow-driven oscillations of the vocal folds (VFs) that produce the primary sound of human phonation. In this study, large eddy simulations were performed to analyze this influence in a numerical model with imposed VF motion as measured experimentally from a synthetic silicone vocal fold model. Model configurations with and without VeFs were considered. Furthermore, configurations with rectangular and elliptical glottis shapes were simulated to investigate the effects of three-dimensional glottal jet evolutions. Results showed that VeFs increased flow rate and transglottal pressure difference by a decrease in the pressure level in the ventricles immediately downstream of the VFs. This led to an increase in the glottal flow resistance, increased energy transfer rate between the flow and VFs, and a simultaneous decrease in the laryngeal flow resistance, which shows a higher amount of kinetic energy in the glottal flow. This enhancement was more pronounced in the rectangular glottis and varied with the subglottal pressure and VeF gap size.

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