Long-term musical training is widely reported to enhance music pitch perception. However, it remains unclear whether tone language experience influences the effect of long-term musical training on musical pitch perception. The present study addressed this question by testing 30 Cantonese and 30 non-tonal language speakers, each divided equally into musician and non-musician groups, on pitch height and pitch interval discrimination. Musicians outperformed non-musicians among non-tonal language speakers, but not among Cantonese speakers on the pitch height discrimination task. However, musicians outperformed non-musicians among Cantonese speakers, but not among non-tonal language speakers on the pitch interval discrimination task. These results suggest that the effect of long-term musical training on musical pitch perception is shaped by tone language experience and varies across different pitch perception tasks.

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