Acoustic shocks have been previously documented in high-amplitude jet noise, including both the near and far fields of military jet aircraft. However, previous investigations into the nature and formation of shocks have historically concentrated on stationary, ground run-up measurements, and previous attempts to connect full-scale ground run-up and flyover measurements have omitted the effect of nonlinear propagation. This paper shows evidence for nonlinear propagation and the presence of acoustic shocks in acoustical measurements of F-35 flyover operations. Pressure waveforms, derivatives, and statistics indicate nonlinear propagation, and the resulting shock formation is significant at high engine powers. Variations due to microphone size, microphone height, and sampling rate are considered, and recommendations for future measurements are made. Metrics indicating nonlinear propagation are shown to be influenced by changes in sampling rate and microphone size, and exhibit less variation due to microphone height.
Characterizing acoustic shocks in high-performance jet aircraft flyover noise
Brent O. Reichman, Kent L. Gee, Tracianne B. Neilsen, J. Micah Downing, Michael M. James, Alan T. Wall, Sally Anne McInerny; Characterizing acoustic shocks in high-performance jet aircraft flyover noise. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 1 March 2018; 143 (3): 1355–1365. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.5026026
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