Modeling and experiments are used to investigate Lamb wave propagation in the direction perpendicular to an applied stress. Sensitivity, in terms of changes in velocity, for both symmetrical and anti-symmetrical modes was determined. Codes were developed based on analytical expressions for waves in loaded plates and they were used to give wave dispersion curves. The experimental system used a pair of compression wave transducers on variable angle wedges, with set separation, and variable frequency tone burst excitation, on an aluminum plate 0.16 cm thick with uniaxial applied loads. The loads, which were up to 600 με, were measured using strain gages. Model results and experimental data are in good agreement. It was found that the change in Lamb wave velocity, due to the acoustoelastic effect, for the S1 mode exhibits about ten times more sensitive, in terms of velocity change, than the traditional bulk wave measurements, and those performed using the fundamental Lamb modes. The data presented demonstrate the potential for the use of higher order Lamb modes for online industrial stress measurement in plate, and that the higher sensitivity seen offers potential for improved measurement systems.

1.
D.
Ensminger
and
L. J.
Bond
,
Ultrasonics: Fundamentals, Technologies and Application
, 3rd ed. (
CRC Press
,
Boca Raton, FL
,
2011
), Chap. 8, pp.
305
365
.
2.
F. D.
Murnaghan
,
Finite Deformation of an Elastic Solid
(
Wiley
,
New York
,
1951
), pp.
1
118
.
3.
D. S.
Hughes
and
J. L.
Kelly
, “
Second-order elastic deformations of solids
,”
Phys. Rev.
92
,
1145
1149
(
1953
).
4.
Y.-H.
Pao
,
W.
Sachse
, and
H.
Fukuoka
, “
Acoustoelasticity and ultrasonic measurement of residual stress
,” in
Physical Acoustics
, edited by
W. P.
Mason
and
R. N.
Thurston
(
Academic
,
New York
,
1984
), Vol. XVII, pp.
61
143
.
5.
D. I.
Crecraft
, “
The measurement of applied and residual stresses in metals using ultrasonic waves
,”
J. Sound. Vib.
5
(
1
),
173
192
(
1967
).
6.
F. A.
Kandil
,
J. D.
Lord
,
A. T.
Fry
, and
P. V.
Grant
, “
A review of residual stress measurement methods—A guide to technique selection
,”
National Physical Laboratory (NPL) Report MATC (A)04
, pp.
1
42
(
2001
).
7.
N. S.
Rossini
,
M.
Dassisti
,
K. Y.
Benyounis
, and
A. G.
Olabi
, “
Methods of measuring residual stresses in components
,”
Mater. Des.
35
,
572
588
(
2012
).
8.
A. V.
Clark
, Jr.
and
J. C.
Moulder
, “
Residual stress determination in aluminium using electromagnetic acoustic transducers
,”
Ultrasonics
23
(
6
),
253
259
(
1985
).
9.
D. E.
Bray
and
P.
Junghans
, “
Application of the LCR ultrasonic technique for evaluation of post-weld heat treatment in steel plate
,”
NDT&E Int.
28
(
4
),
235
242
(
1995
).
10.
F.
Belahcene
and
J.
Lu
, “
Determination of residual stress using critically refracted longitudinal waves and immersion mode
,”
J. Strain Anal.
37
(
1
),
13
20
(
2002
).
11.
D. E.
Bray
and
W.
Tang
, “
Subsurface stress evaluation in steel plates and bars using the LCR ultrasonic wave
,”
Nucl. Eng. Des.
207
(
2
),
231
240
(
2001
).
12.
D.
Husson
, “
A perturbation theory for the acoustoelastic effect of surface waves
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
57
(
5
),
1562
1568
(
1985
).
13.
J.
Qu
and
G.
Liu
, “
Effects of residual stress on guided waves in layered media
,” in
Review of Progress in Qualitative Nondestructive Evaluation
, edited by
D. O.
Thompson
and
D. E.
Chimenti
(
Plenum
,
New York
,
1998
), Vol. 17B, pp.
1635
1642
.
14.
F.
Chen
and
P. D.
Wilcox
, “
The effect of load on guided wave propagation
,”
Ultrasonic
47
(
1-4
),
111
122
(
2007
).
15.
M.
Lematre
,
G.
Feuillard
,
T.
Delaunay
, and
M.
Lethiecq
, “
Modeling of ultrasonic wave propagation in integrated piezoelectric structures under residual stress
,”
IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control
53
(
4
),
685
696
(
2006
).
16.
F.
Shi
,
J. E.
Michaels
, and
S. J.
Lee
, “
In situ estimation of applied biaxial loads with Lamb waves
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
133
(
2
),
677
687
(
2013
).
17.
N.
Gandhi
,
J. E.
Michaels
, and
S. J.
Lee
, “
Acoustoelastic Lamb wave propagation in biaxially stressed plates
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
132
(
3
),
1284
1293
(
2012
).
18.
A.
Pau
and
F. L.
di Scalea
, “
Nonlinear guided wave propagation in prestressed plates
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
137
(
3
),
1529
1540
(
2015
).
19.
N.
Pei
and
L. J.
Bond
, “
Acoustoelastic Lamb wave analysis in thin plate
,” in
Proceedings IEEE Far East NDT New Technology and Application Forum (FENDT)
, Zhuhai, China (May 28–31,
2015
), pp.
149
153
.
20.
S. J.
Wormley
and
R. B.
Thompson
, “
Development of a breadboard instrument for the ultrasonic measurement of stress
,” in
Review of Progress in Qualitative Nondestructive Evaluation
, edited by
D. O.
Thompson
and
D. E.
Chimenti
(
Plenum
,
New York
,
1989
), Vol.
8
, pp.
1119
1125
.
21.
Y.-H.
Pao
and
U.
Gamer
, “
Acoustoelastic wave in orthotropic media
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
77
,
806
812
(
1985
).
22.
N.
Gandhi
, “
Determination of dispersion curves for acoustoelastic Lamb wave propagation
,” Master's thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA,
2010
, pp.
1
73
.
23.
D. M.
Egle
and
D. E.
Bray
, “
Measurement of acoustoelastic and third-order elastic constants for rail steel
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
60
(
3
),
741
744
(
1976
).
24.
M.
Niethammer
,
L. J.
Jacobs
,
J.
Qu
, and
J.
Jarzynski
, “
Time-frequency representations of Lamb waves
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
109
(
5
),
1841
1847
(
2001
).
25.
K.
Kishimoto
,
H.
Inoue
,
M.
Hamada
, and
T.
Shibuya
, “
Time frequency analysis of dispersive waves by means of wavelet transform
,”
J. Appl. Mech. Vol.
62
(
4
),
841
846
(
1995
).
26.
L.
Wang
and
F. G.
Yuan
, “
Group velocity and characteristic wave curves of Lamb waves in composites: Modeling and experiments
,”
Compos. Sci. Technol.
67
(
7-8
),
1370
1384
(
2007
).
You do not currently have access to this content.