A hybrid modeling approach that uses the parabolic equation (PE) with an empirical source model is presented to study and predict the underwater noise due to pile driving in shallow, inhomogeneous environments over long propagation ranges. The empirical source model uses a phased point source array to simulate the time-dependent pile source. The pile source is coupled with a broadband application of a PE wave propagation model that includes range dependent geoacoustic properties and bathymetry. Simulation results are shown to be in good agreement with several acoustic observations of pile driving in the Columbia River between Portland, OR and Vancouver, WA. The model is further applied to predict sound levels in the Columbia River and study the effects of variable bathymetry and sediment configurations on underwater sound levels.
A computational method to predict and study underwater noise due to pile driving
Scott Schecklman, Nathan Laws, Lisa M. Zurk, Martin Siderius; A computational method to predict and study underwater noise due to pile driving. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 1 July 2015; 138 (1): 258–266. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4922333
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