Ten months of broadband seismic data, recorded on six ocean-bottom seismographs located in the Lau Basin, were examined to identify baleen whale species. As the first systematic survey of baleen whales in this part of the southwest Pacific Ocean, this study reveals the variety of species present and their temporal occurrence in and near the basin. Baleen whales produce species-specific low frequency calls that can be identified by distinct patterns in data spectrograms. By matching spectrograms with published accounts, fin, Bryde's, Antarctic blue, and New Zealand blue whale calls were identified. Probable whale sounds that could not be matched to published spectrograms, as well as non-biologic sounds that are likely of volcanogenic origin, were also recorded. Detections of fin whale calls (mid-June to mid-October) and blue whale calls (June through September) suggest that these species migrate through the region seasonally. Detections of Bryde's whale calls (primarily February to June, but also other times of the year) suggest this species resides around the basin nearly year round. The discovery of previously unpublished call types emphasizes the limited knowledge of the full call repertoires of baleen whales and the utility of using seismic survey data to enhance understanding in understudied regions.

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