The backscattering spectrum versus azimuthal angle, also called the “acoustic color” or “acoustic template,” of solid cylinders located in the free water column have been previously studied. For cylinders lying proud on horizontal sand sediment, there has been progress in understanding the backscattering spectrum as a function of grazing angle and the viewing angle relative to the cylinder's axis. Significant changes in the proud backscattering spectrum versus the freefield case are associated with the interference of several multipaths involving the target and the surface. If the cylinder's axis has a vertical tilt such that one end is partially buried in the sand, the multipath structure is changed, thus modifying the resulting spectrum. Some of the changes in the template can be approximately modeled using a combination of geometrical and physical acoustics. The resulting analysis gives a simple approximation relating certain changes in the template with the vertical tilt of the cylinder. This includes a splitting in the azimuthal angle at which broadside multipath features are observed. A similar approximation also applies to a metallic cylinder adjacent to a flat free surface and was confirmed in tank experiments.

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