Analysis of recorded acoustic gunshot signals to determine firearm waveform characteristics requires an understanding of the impulsive signal events, how the waveforms vary among different sources, and how the waveforms are affected by the environment and the recording system. This paper presents empirical results from waveforms produced by different small firearms and an analysis of their variations under different and controlled conditions. Acoustic signals were generated using multiple firearm makes and models firing different ammunition types. Simultaneous recordings from the microphones located at different distances from the source and at different azimuth angles (from the line-of-fire) were used to study source characteristics and sound propagation effects. The results indicate that recorded gunshot waveforms generally consist of multiple acoustic events, and these are observable depending on the received distance and azimuth angle. The source blast size, microphone distance, and microphone azimuth angle are the primary factors affecting the recorded muzzle blast characteristics. Ground or object reflections and ballistic shockwaves and their reflections can interfere with the muzzle blast waveform and its measurements. This experiment confirmed and quantified the wide range of correlation results between waveforms recorded from different source, microphone distance, and microphone angle configurations.
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April 08 2011
Variations in recorded acoustic gunshot waveforms generated by small firearms
Steven D. Beck;
Steven D. Beck, Hirotaka Nakasone, Kenneth W. Marr; Variations in recorded acoustic gunshot waveforms generated by small firearms. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 1 April 2011; 129 (4): 1748–1759. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.3557045
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