This study presents a system for classifying echolocation clicks of six species of odontocetes in the Southern California Bight: Visually confirmed bottlenose dolphins, short- and long-beaked common dolphins, Pacific white-sided dolphins, Risso’s dolphins, and presumed Cuvier’s beaked whales. Echolocation clicks are represented by cepstral feature vectors that are classified by Gaussian mixture models. A randomized cross-validation experiment is designed to provide conditions similar to those found in a field-deployed system. To prevent matched conditions from inappropriately lowering the error rate, echolocation clicks associated with a single sighting are never split across the training and test data. Sightings are randomly permuted before assignment to folds in the experiment. This allows different combinations of the training and test data to be used while keeping data from each sighting entirely in the training or test set. The system achieves a mean error rate of 22% across 100 randomized three-fold cross-validation experiments. Four of the six species had mean error rates lower than the overall mean, with the presumed Cuvier’s beaked whale clicks showing the best performance (<2% error rate). Long-beaked common and bottlenose dolphins proved the most difficult to classify, with mean error rates of 53% and 68%, respectively.
Classification of echolocation clicks from odontocetes in the Southern California Bight
Marie A. Roch, Holger Klinck, Simone Baumann-Pickering, David K. Mellinger, Simon Qui, Melissa S. Soldevilla, John A. Hildebrand; Classification of echolocation clicks from odontocetes in the Southern California Bight. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 1 January 2011; 129 (1): 467–475. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.3514383
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