Three dimensional large eddy simulations, microphone “pop” measurements, and high-speed videos of the airflow and lip opening associated with the syllable “pa” are presented. In the simulations, the mouth is represented by a narrow static ellipse with a back pressure dropping to 110th of its initial value within 60ms of the release. The simulations show a jet penetration rate that falls within range of the pressure front of microphone pop. The simulations and high-speed video experiments were within 20% agreement after 40ms, with the video experiments showing a slower penetration rate than the simulations during the first 40ms. Kinematic measurements indicate that rapid changes in lip geometry during the first 40ms underlie this discrepancy. These findings will be useful for microphone manufacturers, sound engineers, and researchers in speech aerodynamics modeling and articulatory speech synthesis.

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