Military antisubmarine sonars produce intense sounds within the hearing range of most clupeid fish. The behavioral reactions of overwintering herring (Clupea harengus) to sonar signals of two different frequency ranges (1–2 and 67kHz), and to playback of killer whale feeding sounds, were tested in controlled exposure experiments in Vestfjorden, Norway, November 2006. The behavior of free ranging herring was monitored by two upward-looking echosounders. A vessel towing an operational naval sonar source approached and passed over one of them in a block design setup. No significant escape reactions, either vertically or horizontally, were detected in response to sonar transmissions. Killer whale feeding sounds induced vertical and horizontal movements of herring. The results indicate that neither transmission of 12kHz nor 67kHz have significant negative influence on herring on the received sound pressure level tested (127–197 and 139209dBrms re 1μPa, respectively). Military sonars of such frequencies and source levels may thus be operated in areas of overwintering herring without substantially affecting herring behavior or herring fishery. The avoidance during playback of killer whale sounds demonstrates the nature of an avoidance reaction and the ability of the experimental design to reveal it.

1.
Astrup
,
J.
, and
Møhl
,
B.
(
1998
). “
Discrimination between high and low repetition rates of ultrasonic pulses by the cod
,”
J. Fish Biol.
52
,
205
208
.
2.
Blaxter
,
J. H. S.
,
Denton
,
E. J.
, and
Gray
,
J. A. B.
(
1979
). “
Herring swimbladder as a gas-reservoir for the acousticolateralis system
,”
J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K.
59
,
1
10
.
3.
Chapman
,
C. J.
, and
Hawkins
,
A. D.
(
1973
). “
A field study of hearing in the cod, Gadus morhua
,”
J. Comp. Physiol.
85
,
147
167
.
4.
Denton
,
E. J.
, and
Gray
,
J. A. B.
(
1979
). “
The analysis of sound by the sprat ear
,”
Nature (London)
28
,
404
406
.
5.
Dragesund
,
O.
,
Johannessen
,
A.
, and
Ulltang
,
Ø.
(
1997
). “
Variation in migration and abundance of Norwegian spring spawning herring (Clupea harengus L.)
,”
Sarsia
82
,
97
105
.
6.
Engås
,
A.
, and
Løkkeborg
,
S.
(
2002
). “
Effects of seismic shooting and vessel-generated noise on fish behaviour and catch rates
,”
Bioacoustics
12
,
313
315
.
7.
Engås
,
A.
,
Løkkeborg
,
S.
,
Ona
,
E.
, and
Soldal
,
A. V.
(
1996
). “
Effects of seismic shooting on local abundance and catch rates of cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus)
,”
Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.
53
,
2238
2249
.
8.
Enger
,
P. S.
(
1967
). “
Hearing in herring
,”
Comp. Biochem. Physiol.
22
,
527
538
.
9.
Enger
,
P. S.
(
1981
). “
Frequency discrimination in teleosts—Central or peripheral?
,” in
Hearing and Sound Communication in Fishes
, edited by
W. A.
Tavolga
,
A. N.
Popper
, and
R. R.
Fay
(
Springer
,
New York
), pp.
243
255
.
10.
Fay
,
R. R.
, and
Popper
,
A. N.
(
2000
). “
Evolution of hearing in vertebrates: The inner ears and processing
,”
Hear. Res.
149
,
1
10
.
11.
Hamre
,
J.
(
1990
). “
Life history and exploration of the Norwegian spring-spawning herring
,” in
Biology and Fisheries of the Norwegian Spring Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Northeast Atlantic
, edited by
T.
Monstad
(
Institute of Marine Research
,
Bergen, Norway
), pp.
5
39
.
12.
Handegard
,
N. O.
, and
Tjøstheim
,
D.
(
2005
). “
When fish meet a trawling vessel: Examining the behaviour of gadoids using a free-floating buoy and acoustic split-beam tracking
,”
Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.
62
,
2409
2422
.
13.
Hastings
,
M. C.
, and
Popper
,
A. N.
(
2005
). “
Effects of Sound on Fish
,” Technical Report, Jones and Stokes, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, CA.
14.
Hastings
,
M. C.
,
Popper
,
A. N.
,
Finneran
,
J. J.
, and
Lanford
,
P. J.
(
1996
). “
Effects of low-frequency underwater sound on hair cells of the inner ear and lateral line of the teleost fish Astronotus ocellatus
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
99
,
1759
1762
.
15.
Hawkins
,
A. D.
, and
Johnstone
,
A. D. F.
(
1978
). “
The hearing of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar
,”
J. Fish Biol.
13
,
655
673
.
16.
Hofman
,
R. J.
(
2004
). “
Marine sound pollution: Does it merit concern?
,”
Mar. Technol. Soc. J.
37
,
66
77
.
17.
Holst
,
J. C.
,
Drangesund
,
O.
,
Hamre
,
J.
,
Misund
,
O. A.
, and
Østvedt
,
O. J.
(
2002
). “
Fifty years of herring migrations in the Norwegian Sea
,”
ICES Marine Science Symposia
, Vol.
215
, pp.
352
360
.
18.
Holst
,
J. C.
,
Røttingen
,
I.
, and
Melle
,
W.
(
2004
). “
The herring
,” in
The Norwegian Sea Ecosystem
, edited by
H. R.
Skjoldal
(
Tapir Academic
,
Trondheim, Norway
), pp.
203
226
.
19.
Huse
,
I.
, and
Korneliussen
,
R.
(
2000
). “
Diel variation in acoustic density measurements of overwintering herring (Clupea harengus L.)
,”
ICES J. Mar. Sci.
57
,
903
910
.
20.
Johannessen
,
A.
,
Slotte
,
A.
,
Bergstad
,
O. A.
,
Drangesund
,
O.
, and
Røttingen
,
I.
(
1995
). “
Reappearance of the Norwegian spring spawning herring (Clupea harengus L.) at the spawning grounds of south western Norway
,” in
Biology and Coastal Waters: Proceedings of the Symposium on the Ecology of Fjords and Coastal Waters, Tromsø, Norway 5–9 December 1994
, pp.
347
364
.
21.
Johnson
,
M.
, and
Tyack
,
P. L.
(
2003
). “
A digital acoustic recording tag for measuring the response of wild marine mammals to sound
,”
Inf. Sci. (N.Y.)
28
,
3
12
.
22.
Jørgensen
,
R.
,
Olsen
,
K. K.
,
Falk-Pettersen
,
I.-B.
, and
Kanapthippilai
,
P.
(
2005
). “
Investigation of potential effects of low frequency sonar signals on survival, development and behaviour of fish larvae and juveniles
,” Report,
Norwegian College of Fishery Science
, Tromso, Norway.
23.
Kenyon
,
T. N.
,
Ladich
,
F.
, and
Yan
,
H. Y.
(
1998
). “
A comparative study of hearing ability in fishes: The auditory brainstem response approach
,”
J. Comp. Physiol. [A]
182
,
307
318
.
24.
Kvadsheim
,
P. H.
, and
Sevaldsen
,
E.
(
2005
). “
The potential impact of 18kHz active sonar on stocks of juvenile fish during sonar exercises
,” FFI-rapport 2005/01027 http://rapporter.ffi.no/rapporter/2005/01027.pdf (Last viewed April 2008).
25.
Kvadsheim
,
P.
,
Benders
,
F.
,
Miller
,
P.
,
Doksæter
,
L.
,
Knudsen
,
F.
,
Tyack
,
P.
,
Nordlund
,
N.
,
Lam
,
F. P.
,
Samarra
,
F.
,
Kleivane
,
L.
, and
Godø
,
O. R.
(
2007
). “
Herring (sild), killer whales (spekkhogger) and sonar—The 3S-2006 cruise report with preliminary results
,” FFI-rapport 2007/01189, http://rapporter.ffi.no/rapporter/2007/01189.pdf (Last viewed April,
2008
).
26.
Ladich
,
F.
, and
Popper
,
A. N.
(
2004
). “
Parallel evolution in fish hearing organs
,” in
Evolution of the Vertebrate Auditory System
, edited by
G. A.
Manley
,
A. N.
Popper
, and
R. R.
Fay
(
Springer-Verlag
,
New York
), pp.
98
127
.
27.
Littell
,
R. C.
,
Milliken
,
G. A.
,
Stroup
,
W. W.
, and
Wolfinger
,
R. D.
(
1996
).
SAS System for Mixed Models
(
SAS Institute Inc.
,
Cary, NC
).
28.
Løvik
,
A.
, and
Hovem
,
J. M.
(
1979
). “
An experimental investigation of swimbladder resonance in fishes
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
66
,
850
854
.
29.
MacLennan
,
D. N.
,
Fernandes
,
P. G.
, and
Dalen
,
J.
(
2002
). “
A consistent approach to definitions and symbols in fisheries acoustics
,”
ICES J. Mar. Sci.
59
,
365
369
.
30.
Mann
,
D. A.
,
Lu
,
Z.
,
Hastings
,
M. C.
, and
Popper
,
A. N.
(
1998
). “
Detection of ultrasonic tones and simulated dolphin echolocation clicks by a teleost fish, the American shad (Alosa sapidissima)
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
104
,
562
568
.
31.
Mann
,
D. A.
,
Popper
,
A. N.
, and
Wilson
,
B.
(
2005
). “
Pacific herring hearing does not include ultrasound
,”
Biol. Lett.
1
,
158
161
.
32.
McCauley
,
R. D.
,
Fewtrell
,
J.
, and
Popper
,
A. N.
(
2003
). “
High intensity anthropogenic sound damage fish ears
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
113
,
638
642
.
33.
McCulloch
,
C. E.
, and
Searle
,
S. R.
(
2001
).
Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models
(
Wiley
,
New York
).
34.
Miller
,
P. J. O.
(
2006
). “
Diversity in sound pressure levels and estimated active space of resident killer whale vocalizations
,”
J. Comp. Physiol. [A]
192
,
449
459
.
35.
Mohr
,
H.
(
1964
). “
Reaction of herring to fishing gear revealed by echosounder
,” in
Modern Fishing Gear of the World 2
, edited by
G.
von Brandt
(
Fishing News Books
,
London, UK
), pp.
253
257
.
36.
Mohr
,
H.
(
1971
). “
Behaviour patterns of different herring stocks in relation to ship and midwater trawl
,” in
Modern Fishing Gear of the World 3
, edited by
H.
Kristjonsson
(
Fishing News Books
,
London, UK
), pp.
368
371
.
37.
Moore
,
S. E.
,
Francine
,
J. K.
,
Bowles
,
A. E.
, and
Ford
,
J. K. B.
(
1988
). “
Analysis of calls of killer whales, Orcinus orca, from Iceland to Norway
,”
Rit Fiskideildar
11
,
225
2250
.
38.
Nøttestad
,
L.
(
1998
). “
Extensive gas bubble release in Norwegian spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus) during predator avoidance
,”
ICES J. Mar. Sci.
55
,
1133
1140
.
39.
Nøttestad
,
L.
, and
Axelsen
,
B. E.
(
1999
). “
Herring school manoeuvres in response to killer whale attacks
,”
Can. J. Zool.
77
,
1540
1547
.
40.
Nøttestad
,
L.
,
Aksland
,
M.
,
Beltestad
,
A.
,
Fernö
,
A.
,
Johannessen
,
A.
, and
Misund
,
O. A.
(
1999
). “
Schooling dynamics of Norwegian spring spawning herring (Clupea harengus L.) in a coastal spawning area
,”
Sarsia
80
,
277
284
.
41.
Olsen
,
K.
,
Angell
,
J.
,
Pettersen
,
F.
, and
Løvik
,
A.
(
1983
). “
Observed fish reactions to a surveying vessel with special reference to herring, cod, capelin and polar cod
,” FAO Fisheries Report, FAO, Rome, Italy.
42.
Ona
,
E.
,
Godø
,
O. R.
,
Handegard
,
N. O.
,
Hjellvik
,
V.
,
Patel
,
R.
, and
Pedersen
,
G.
(
2007
). “
Silent vessels are not quiet
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
121
,
145
150
.
43.
Patel
,
R.
(
2007
). “
Surveillance of marine resources by use of stationary platforms and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV)
,” Ph.D. thesis,
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
, Trondheim.
44.
Popper
,
A. N.
(
2003
). “
Effects of anthropogenic sound on fishes
,”
Fisheries
28
,
24
31
.
45.
Popper
,
A. N.
(
1972
). “
Pure tone auditory system for the carp (Cyprinus carpio)
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
52
,
1714
1717
.
46.
Popper
,
A. N.
,
Fewtrell
,
J.
,
Smith
,
M. E.
, and
McCauley
,
R. D.
(
2004
). “
Anthropogenic sound: Effects on the behaviour and physiology of fishes
,”
Mar. Technol. Soc. J.
37
,
35
40
.
47.
Popper
,
A. N.
,
Smith
,
M. E.
Cott
,
P. A.
,
Hanna
,
B. W.
,
MacGillivary
,
A. O.
,
Austin
,
M. E.
, and
Mann
,
D. A.
(
2005
). “
Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
117
,
3958
3971
.
48.
Popper
,
A. N.
,
Halvorsen
,
M. B.
,
Kane
,
A.
,
Miller
,
D. L.
,
Smith
,
M. E.
,
Song
,
J.
,
Stein
,
P.
, and
Wyscocki
,
L. E.
(
2007
). “
The effects of high-intensity, low-frequency active sonar on rainbow trout
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
122
,
623
635
.
49.
Richardson
,
W. J.
,
Greene
,
C. R.
,
Malme
,
C. I.
, and
Thomson
,
D. H.
(
1995
).
Marine Mammals and Noise
(
Academic
,
San Diego
).
50.
Røttingen
,
I.
, and
Slotte
,
A.
(
2001
). “
The relevance of a former important spawning area in the present life history and management of Norwegian spring-spawning herring
,” in
Herring: Expectations for a New Millennium
, edited by
F.
Funk
,
J.
Blackburn
,
D.
Hay
,
A. J.
Paul
,
R.
Stephenson
,
R.
Toresen
, and
D.
Withell
(
University of Alaska Sea Grant
,
Fairbanks, AK
), pp.
297
313
.
51.
SAS Institute Inc.
(
2003
). The SAS System for Windows (Version 9.1), Cary, NC.
52.
Similä
,
T.
(
1997
). “
Sonar observations of killer whales (Orcinus orca) feeding on herring schools
,”
Aquat. Mamm.
23
,
119
126
.
53.
Similä
,
T.
, and
Ugarte
,
F.
(
1993
). “
Surface and underwater observations of cooperatively feeding killer whales in northern Norway
,”
Can. J. Zool.
71
,
1494
1499
.
54.
Simon
,
M.
,
Wahlberg
,
M.
,
Ugarte
,
F.
, and
Miller
,
L. A.
(
2005
). “
Acoustic characteristics of underwater tail slaps used by Norwegian and Icelandic killer whales (Orcinus orca) to debilitate herring (Clupea harengus)
,”
J. Exp. Biol.
208
,
2459
2466
.
55.
Simon
,
M.
,
Ugarte
,
F.
,
Wahlberg
,
M.
, and
Miller
,
L. A.
(
2006
). “
Icelandic killer whales Orcinus orca use a pulsed call suitable for manipulating the schooling behaviour of herring Clupea harengus
,”
Bioacoustics
16
,
57
74
.
56.
Simon
,
M.
,
McGregor
,
P. K.
, and
Ugarte
,
F.
(
2007a
). “
The relationship between the acoustic behaviour and surface activity of killer whales (Orcinus orca) that feed on herring (Clupea harengus)
,”
Acta Ethologica
10
,
47
53
.
57.
Simon
,
M.
,
Wahlberg
,
M.
, and
Miller
,
L. A.
(
2007b
). “
Echolocation clicks from killer whales feeding on herring
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
121
,
749
752
.
58.
Skaret
,
G.
,
Slotte
,
A.
,
Handegard
,
N. O.
,
Axelsen
,
B. E.
, and
Jørgensen
,
R.
(
2006
). “
Pre-spawning herring in a protected area showed only moderate reaction to a surveying vessel
,”
Fish. Res.
78
,
359
367
.
59.
Slotte
,
A.
(
1999
). “
Differential utilization of energy during wintering and spawning migration in Norwegian spring-spawning herring
,”
J. Fish Biol.
54
,
338
355
.
60.
Slotte
,
A.
,
Hansen
,
K.
,
Dalen
,
J.
, and
Ona
,
E.
(
2004
). “
Acoustic mapping of pelagic fish distribution and abundance in relation to a seismic shooting area off the Norwegian west coast
,”
Fish. Res.
67
,
143
150
.
61.
Smith
,
M. E.
,
Andrew
,
S. K.
, and
Popper
,
A. N.
(
2004
). “
Noise-induced stress response and hearing loss in goldfish (Carassius auratus)
,”
J. Exp. Biol.
207
,
427
435
.
62.
Strager
,
H.
(
1995
). “
Pod specific call repertoires and compound calls of killer whales, Orcinus orca Linneaus, 1758, in waters of northern Norway
,”
Can. J. Zool.
73
,
1037
1044
.
63.
Vabø
,
R.
,
Olsen
,
K.
, and
Huse
,
I.
(
2002
). “
The effect of vessel avoidance of wintering Norwegian spring spawning herring
,”
Fish. Res.
58
,
59
77
.
64.
Van Opzeeland
,
I. C.
,
Corkeron
,
P. J.
,
Leyssen
,
T.
,
Similä
,
T.
, and
Van Parijs
,
S.
(
2005
). “
Acoustic behaviour of Norwegian killer whales, Orcinus orca, during carousel and seiner foraging on spring-spawning herring
,”
Aquat. Mamm.
31
,
110
119
.
65.
Van Parijs
,
S.
,
Leyssen
,
T.
, and
Similä
,
T.
(
2004
). “
Sound produced by Norwegian killer whales, Orcinus orca, during capture
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
116
,
557
560
.
66.
Wilson
,
B.
, and
Dill
,
L. M.
(
2002
). “
Pacific herring respond to simulated odontocete echolocation sounds
,”
Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.
59
,
542
553
.
You do not currently have access to this content.