Although advances in techniques for image acquisition and analysis have facilitated the direct measurement of three-dimensional vocal tract air space shapes associated with specific speech phonemes, little information is available with regard to changes in three-dimensional (3-D) vocal tract shape as a function of vocal register, pitch, and loudness. In this study, 3-D images of the vocal tract during falsetto and chest register phonations at various pitch and loudness conditions were obtained using electron beam computed tomography (EBCT). Detailed measurements and differences in vocal tract configuration and formant characteristics derived from the eight measured vocal tract shapes are reported.

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