Previous studies have shown that voice fundamental frequency (F0) is modified by changes in the pitch of vocal feedback and have demonstrated that the audio–vocal control system has both open- and closed-loop control properties. However, the extent to which this system operates in closed-loop fashion may have been underestimated in previous work. Because the step-type stimuli used were very rapid, and people are physically unable to change their voice F0 as rapidly as the stimuli, feedback responses might have been reduced or suppressed. In the present study, pitch-shift stimuli, consisting of a disparity between voice F0 and feedback pitch of varying ramp onset velocities, were presented to subjects vocalizing a steady /ah/ sound to examine the effect of stimulus onset on voice F0 responses. Results showed that response velocity covaried with stimulus velocity. Response latency and time of the peak response decreased with increases in stimulus velocity, while response magnitude decreased. A simple feedback model reproduced most features of these responses. These results strongly support previous suggestions that the audio-vocal system monitors auditory feedback and, through closed-loop negative feedback, adjusts voice F0 so as to cancel low-level fluctuations in F0.

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