Singing humpback whales in Hawaii produce a variety of sounds at high source levels (ca. 185 dB re: 1 μPa), in coastal waters 15–500 m deep. These sounds are attenuated and distorted as they propagate away from a singer, limiting the utilizable range of the sounds. In the current study, simulations based on normal-mode theory were used to investigate how the effects of shallow-water propagation constrain humpback whales’ use of sound. It is shown that humpbacks can greatly affect transmission range by adjusting their positions and sounds in response to environmental factors. Source depth, in particular, is shown to be a major determinant of which frequencies propagate the farthest. A preliminary analysis of range-dependent distortion suggests that spectral cues can potentially provide listening whales with information about how far a sound has traveled.

1.
S. Green and P. Marler, “The analysis of animal communication,” in Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology, Vol. 3: Social Behavior and Communication, edited by P. Marler and J. G. Vandenbergh (Plenum, New York, 1979), pp. 73–157.
2.
M. K.
Obrist
, “
Flexible bat echolocation: The influence of individual, habitat and conspecifics on sonar signal design
,”
Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol.
36
,
207
219
(
1995
).
3.
M. C.
de Oliveira
, “
Towards standardized descriptions of the echolocation calls of microchiropteran bats: Pulse design terminology for seventeen species from Queensland
,”
Aust. J. Zool.
30
,
405
411
(
1998
).
4.
G. Neuweiler, “Echolocation and adaptivity to ecological constraints,” in Neuroethology and Behavioral Physiology, edited by F. Huber and H. Markl (Springer, Berlin, 1983), pp. 280–302.
5.
M. B.
Fenton
and
G. P.
Bell
, “
Recognition of species of insectivorous bats by their echolocation calls
,”
J. Mammal.
62
,
233
243
(
1981
).
6.
J. D. Pye, “Echolocation signals and echoes in air,” in Animal Sonar Systems, edited by R. G. Busnel and J. Fish (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 309–354.
7.
J. A.
Simmons
,
W. A.
Lavender
,
B. A.
Lavender
,
J. E.
Childs
,
K.
Hulebak
,
M. R.
Rigden
,
J.
Sherman
, and
B.
Woolman
, “
Echolocation by free-tailed bats (Tadarida)
,”
J. Comp. Physiol. A
125
,
291
299
(
1978
).
8.
K.
Zbinden
and
P. E.
Zingg
, “
Search and hunting signals of echolocating free-tailed bats, Tadarida teniotis in southern Switzerland
,”
Mammalia
50
,
9
25
(
1985
).
9.
J. A.
Simmons
, “
A view of the world from the bat’s ear: The formation of acoustic images in echolocation
,”
Cognition
33
,
155
199
(
1989
).
10.
R. J. Urick, Principles of Underwater Sound, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1983).
11.
F. B.
Jensen
and
W. A.
Kuperman
, “
Optimum frequency of propagation in shallow water environments
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
73
,
813
819
(
1983
).
12.
W. J. Richardson, C. R. Greene, Jr., C. I. Malme, and D. H. Thomson, Marine Mammals and Noise (Academic, San Diego, 1995).
13.
W. A. Kuperman, “Propagation of sound in the ocean,” in Encyclopedia of Acoustics, edited by M. J. Crocker (Wiley, New York, 1997), pp. 391–500.
14.
P. H. Rogers and M. Cox, “Underwater sound as a biological stimulus,” in Sensory Biology of Aquatic Animals, edited by J. Atema, R. R. Fay, A. N. Popper, and W. N. Tavolga (Springer, New York, 1988), pp. 131–149.
15.
A. Parvulescu, “Problems of propagation and processing,” in Marine Bioacoustics, edited by W. N. Tavolga (Pergamon, New York, 1964), pp. 87–100.
16.
G. M.
Wenz
, “
Acoustic ambient noise in the ocean
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
34
,
1936
1956
(
1962
).
17.
R.
Payne
and
D.
Webb
, “
Orientation by means of long range acoustic signaling in baleen whales
,”
Ann. (N.Y.) Acad. Sci.
188
,
110
141
(
1971
).
18.
W. W. L.
Au
,
W. R.
Floyd
, and
J. E.
Haun
, “
Propagation of Atlantic bottlenose dolphin echolocation signals
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
64
,
411
422
(
1978
).
19.
W. E. Evans, W. W. Sutherland, and R. G. Beil, “The directional characteristics of delphinid sounds,” in Marine Bioacoustics, edited by W. N. Tavolga (Pergamon, New York, 1964), pp. 353–372.
20.
W. E.
Schevill
and
W. A.
Watkins
, “
Sound structure and directionality in Orcinus (killer whale)
,”
Zoologica
51
,
71
76
(
1966
).
21.
K. S. Norris and W. E. Evans, “Directionality of echolocation clicks in the rough-tooth porpoise, Steno bredanensis (Lesson),” in Marine Bioacoustics, Vol. 2, edited by W. N. Tavolga (Pergamon, Oxford, U. K., 1967), pp. 305–316.
22.
A. S. Frankel, “Acoustic and visual tracking reveals distribution, song variability and social roles of humpback whales in Hawaiian waters,” Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, 1994.
23.
A. S.
Frankel
,
C. W.
Clark
,
L. M.
Herman
, and
C. M.
Gabriele
, “
Spatial distribution, habitat utilization, and social interactions of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, off Hawaii, determined using acoustic and visual techniques
,”
Can. J. Zool.
73
,
1134
1146
(
1995
).
24.
A. S.
Frankel
and
C. W.
Clark
, “
Results of low-frequency playback of m-sequence noise to humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, in Hawai’i
,”
Can. J. Zool.
76
,
521
535
(
1998
).
25.
K. M.
Fristrup
and
J. L.
Spiesberger
, “
Passive localization of calling animals and sensing of their acoustic environment using acoustic tomography
,”
Am. Natural.
135
,
107
156
(
1990
).
26.
J. A. Mossbridge and J. A. Thomas, “Frequency partitioning of Antarctic killer whale and leopard seal sounds,” Paper presented at the World Marine Mammal Conference, Monaco, 1998.
27.
V.
Premus
and
J. L.
Spiesberger
, “
Can acoustic multipath explain finback (B. physalus) 20-Hz doublets in shallow water?
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
101
,
1127
1138
(
1997
).
28.
A. M.
Thode
,
G. L.
D’Spain
,
W. A.
Kuperman
, and
W. S.
Hodgkiss
, “
Removal of environmental effects from whale calls using coherent beamforming methods
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
100
,
2611
(
1996
).
29.
A. M.
Thode
,
G. L.
D’Spain
, and
W. A.
Kuperman
, “
Matched-field processing of baleen whale vocalizations using calibrated environmental models
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
103
,
2909
(
1998
).
30.
C. W.
Clark
, “
Application of U.S. Navy underwater hydrophone arrays for scientific research on whales
,”
Sci. Rep. Int. Whal. Comm.
44
,
1
12
(
1994
).
31.
C. W. Clark, “Acoustic behaviors of blue and fin whales,” Paper presented at the 24th International Ethology Conference, Honolulu, HI, 1995.
32.
N. C.
Makris
and
D. H.
Cato
, “
Using singing whales to track non-singers
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
96
,
3270
(
1994
).
33.
P. O.
Thompson
,
W. C.
Cummings
, and
S. J.
Ha
, “
Sounds, source levels, and associated behaviors of humpback whales, southeast Alaska
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
80
,
735
740
(
1986
).
34.
P. Tyack, “Humpback whales respond to sounds of their neighbors,” Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Rockefeller University, New York, 1982.
35.
L. K. Winn and H. E. Winn, Wings in the Sea: The Humpback Whale (University Press of New England, Hanover, NH, 1985).
36.
D. A.
Helweg
and
L. M.
Herman
, “
Diurnal patterns of behavior and group structure of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Hawaiian waters
,”
Ethology
98
,
298
311
(
1994
).
37.
P. O.
Thompson
and
W. A.
Friedl
, “
A long term study of low frequency sounds from several species of whales off Oahu, Hawaii
,”
Cetology
45
,
1
19
(
1982
).
38.
D. Chabot, “Sound production of the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae, Borowski) in Newfoundland waters,” Unpublished masters thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. Johns, 1984.
39.
D.
Chabot
, “
A quantitative technique to compare and classify humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) sounds
,”
Ethology
77
,
89
102
(
1988
).
40.
A. S.
Frankel
, “
Interindividual variation in the songs of humpback whales
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
99
,
2556
(
1995
).
41.
K.
Payne
and
R. S.
Payne
, “
Large scale changes over 19 years in songs of humpback whales in Bermuda
,”
Z. Tierpsychol.
68
,
89
114
(
1985
).
42.
H. E.
Winn
,
T. J.
Thompson
,
W. C.
Cummings
,
J.
Hain
,
J.
Hudnall
,
H.
Hays
, and
W.
Steiner
, “
Song of the humpback whale: Population comparisons
,”
Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol.
8
,
41
46
(
1981
).
43.
C. W.
Clark
, “
The acoustic repertoire of the southern right whale: A quantitative analysis
,”
Anim. Behav.
30
,
1060
1071
(
1982
).
44.
D. A. Helweg, A. S. Frankel, J. R. Mobley, Jr., and L. M. Herman, “Humpback whale song: Our current understanding,” in Marine Mammal Sensory Systems, edited by J. A. Thomas, R. A. Kastelein, and A. Y. Supin (Plenum, New York, 1992), pp. 459–483.
45.
L. M. Herman and W. N. Tavolga, “The communication systems of cetaceans,” in Cetacean Behavior: Mechanisms and Functions, edited by L. M. Herman (Interscience, New York, 1980), pp. 149–209.
46.
G. K.
Silber
, “
The relationship of social vocalizations to surface behavior and aggression in the Hawaiian humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)
,”
Can. J. Zool.
64
,
2075
2080
(
1986
).
47.
C. W. Clark, “Acoustic behavior of mysticete whales,” in Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans: Laboratory and Field Evidence, edited by J. Thomas and R. Kastelein (Plenum, New York, 1990), pp. 571–583.
48.
A.
Mednis
, “
An acoustic analysis of the 1988 song of the humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae, off eastern Australia
,”
Mem. Queens. Mus.
30
,
323
332
(
1991
).
49.
E. Mercado III, “An acoustic analysis of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song units,” Unpublished masters thesis, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, 1995.
50.
P.
Tyack
, “
Interactions between singing Hawaiian humpback whales and conspecifics nearby
,”
Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol.
8
,
105
116
(
1981
).
51.
D. H.
Cato
, “
Songs of humpback whales: The Australian perspective
,”
Mem. Queens. Mus.
30
,
277
290
(
1991
).
52.
“National Marine Sanctuaries. Hawaiian islands humpback whale national marine sanctuary,” Final environmental impact statement/management plan, State of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, 1997.
53.
H. P. Whitehead, “The behavior and ecology of the humpback whale in the northwest Atlantic,” Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, 1981.
54.
N. Forsyth, J. R. Mobley, Jr., and G. B. Bauer, “Depth preferences in Hawaiian humpbacks,” Paper presented at the 9th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Chicago, IL, 1991.
55.
Hawaii Ocean Time Series Database. HOT CTD data. Unpublished data, available at http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/HOT_WOCE/ctd.html, Honolulu, HI, 1997.
56.
K. Wyrtki, J. B. Burks, R. C. Latham, and W. M. Patzert, “Oceanographic observations during 1965–1967 in the Hawaiian archipelago,” Office of Naval Research HIG-67-15, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, University of Hawaii, 1967.
57.
A. S. Frankel, C. W. Clark, and C. M. Gabriele, “Preliminary results of the 1996 Hawaii MMRP playback experiments,” MMRP/ATOC bimonthly Report No. 3, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, 1996.
58.
A. S.
Frankel
, “
Effects of scaled ATOC playbacks on the behavior of humpback whales in Hawaii
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
100
,
2611
(
1995
).
59.
A. S. Frankel, J. R. Mobley, Jr., and L. M. Herman, “Estimation of auditory response thresholds in humpback whales using biologically meaningful sounds,” in Sensory Systems of Aquatic Mammals, edited by R. Kastelein, J. Thomas, and P. Nachtigall (De Spil, Woerden, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 55–70.
60.
W. A. Friedl and P. O. Thompson, “Measuring acoustic noise around Kahoolawe island,” NOSC Technical Report 732, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA, 1981.
61.
H. L. Maybaum, “Effects of a 3.3-kHz sonar system on humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, in Hawaiian waters,” Unpublished masters thesis, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, 1989.
62.
T. F. Norris, “Effects of boat noise on the singing behavior of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae),” Unpublished masters thesis, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA, 1995.
63.
D. H.
Cato
, “
Review of ambient noise in the ocean: Nonbiological sources
,”
Bull. Austral. Acoust. Soc.
6
,
31
36
(
1978
).
64.
A. A. Myrberg, Jr, “Ocean noise and the behavior of marine animals: Relationships and implications,” in Effects of Noise on Wildlife, edited by J. L. Fletcher and R. G. Busnel (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 169–208.
65.
G. M. Wenz, “Curious noises and the sonic environment in the ocean,” in Marine Bioacoustics, edited by W. N. Tavolga (Pergamon, New York, 1964), pp. 101–119.
66.
D. H.
Cato
, “
The biological contribution to the ambient noise in waters near Australia
,”
Acoust. Austral.
20
,
76
80
(
1992
).
67.
A. C.
Kibblewhite
,
R. N.
Denham
, and
D. J.
Barnes
, “
Unusual low-frequency signals observed in New Zealand waters
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
41
,
644
655
(
1967
).
68.
D. H.
Cato
, “
Sounds of humpback whales migrating along the Australian coastlines
,”
15th Int. Congress Acoust.
1
,
219
222
(
1995
).
69.
H. E.
Winn
and
L. K.
Winn
, “
The song of the humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae in the West Indies
,”
Mar. Biol. (Berlin)
47
,
97
114
(
1978
).
70.
E. Mercado III, “Humpback whale bioacoustics: From form to function,” Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, 1998.
71.
C. Levenson, “Characteristics of sound produced by humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae),” NAV-OCEANO Technical Note 7700-6-72, Naval Oceanographic Office, Washington, DC, 1972.
72.
H. E. Winn, P. J. Perkins, and T. C. Poulter, “Sounds of the humpback whale,” in Proceedings of the 7th Annual Conference on Biological Sonar and Diving Mammals, 1970, pp. 39–52.
73.
D. H.
Cato
, “
Simple methods of estimating source levels and locations of marine animal sounds
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
104
,
1667
1678
(
1998
).
74.
P. E. Purves and G. E. Pilleri, Echolocation of Whales and Dolphins (Academic, New York, 1983).
75.
H. W.
Marsh
and
M.
Schulkin
, “
Shallow water transmission
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
34
,
863
864
(
1962
).
76.
R. H.
Ferris
, “
Comparison of measured and calculated normal-mode amplitude functions for acoustic waves in shallow water
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
52
,
981
988
(
1972
).
77.
Z.-H.
Michalopoulou
and
M. B.
Porter
, “
Matched-field processing for broad-band source localization
,”
IEEE J. Ocean Eng.
21
,
384
392
(
1996
).
78.
J. M.
Ozard
,
M. L.
Yeremy
,
N. R.
Chapman
, and
M. J.
Wilmut
, “
Matched-field processing in a range-dependent shallow water environment in the northeast Pacific Ocean
,”
IEEE J. Ocean Eng.
21
,
377
383
(
1996
).
79.
C. T.
Tindle
,
K. M.
Guthrie
,
G. E. J.
Bold
,
M. D.
Johns
,
D.
Jones
,
K. O.
Dixon
, and
T. G.
Birdsall
, “
Measurements of the frequency dependence of normal modes
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
64
,
1178
1185
(
1978
).
80.
E. K.
Westwood
,
C. T.
Tindle
, and
N. R.
Chapman
, “
A normal mode model for acoustoelastic ocean environments
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
100
,
3631
3645
(
1996
).
81.
E. K.
Westwood
,
C. T.
Tindle
, and
N. R.
Chapman
, “
A normal mode model for multilayered acoustoelastic ocean environments based on an analytic reflection coefficient method
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
95
,
2908
(
1994
).
82.
E. K.
Westwood
, “
An efficient broadband normal-mode model for acoustoelastic ocean environments
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
96
,
3352
(
1994
).
83.
F. B. Jensen, W. A. Kuperman, M. B. Porter, and H. Schmidt, Computational Ocean Acoustics (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994).
84.
C. W.
Clark
and
W. T.
Ellison
, “
Low-frequency signaling behavior in mysticete whales
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
101
,
3163
(
1997
).
85.
K. V.
Mackenzie
, “
Nine-term equation for sound speed in the oceans
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
705
,
807
812
(
1981
).
86.
J. D. Darling, “Migration, abundance and behavior of Hawaiian humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae),” Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1983.
87.
L. J. Ziomek, Underwater Acoustics: A Linear Systems Theory Approach (Academic, Orlando, 1985).
88.
L. N.
Frazer
and
P. I.
Pecholcs
, “
Single hydrophone localization
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
88
,
995
1002
(
1990
).
89.
J. S.
Perkins
and
A.
Kuperman
, “
Environmental signal processing: Three-dimensional matched-field processing with a vertical array
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
87
,
1553
1556
(
1990
).
90.
S. E.
Dosso
and
N. R.
Chapman
, “
Measurements and modeling of downslope acoustic propagation loss over a continental slope
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
81
,
258
268
(
1987
).
91.
A. M.
Thode
,
G. L.
D’Spain
, and
W. A.
Kuperman
, “
Physical constraints on blue whale sound production mechanisms derived from matched-field processing
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
105
,
993
(
1999
).
92.
G. L.
D’Spain
,
W. A.
Kuperman
,
W. S.
Hodgkiss
, and
L. F.
Berger
, “
Three-dimensional localization of a blue whale using broadband matched-field processing for range and depth and plane-wave adaptive beamforming for azimuth
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
97
,
3353
(
1995
).
93.
G. L.
D’Spain
and
W. A.
Kuperman
, “
Simultaneous source panging and bottom geoacoustic inversion using shallow water, broadband dispersion of fin whale calls
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
97
,
3353
(
1995
).
94.
J. S. Perkins, W. A. Kuperman, and R. B. Evans, “Three-dimensional oceanographic acoustics: Propagation, noise and array processing,” in Oceanography and Acoustics: Prediction and Propagation models, edited by A. R. Robinson and D. Lee (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), pp. 161–178.
95.
H. C. Gerhardt, “Communication and the environment,” in Animal Behavior: Vol. 2, Communication, edited by T. R. Halliday and P. J. B. Slater (W. H. Freeman, New York, 1983), pp. 82–113.
96.
R. H.
Wiley
and
D. G.
Richards
, “
Physical constraints on acoustic communication in the atmosphere: Implications for the evolution of animal vocalizations
,”
Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol.
3
,
69
94
(
1978
).
97.
A. D. Hawkins and A. A. Myrberg, Jr., “Hearing and sound communication underwater,” in Bioacoustics: A Comparative Perspective, edited by B. Lewis (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 347–405.
98.
J. Sundberg, “Human singing voice,” in Encyclopedia of Acoustics, edited by M. J. Crocker (Wiley, New York, 1997), pp. 1687–1695.
99.
E. Mercado III, “Computational models of sound production and reception in the humpback whale,” unpublished masters thesis, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, 1998.
100.
R. S.
Payne
and
S.
McVay
, “
Songs of humpback whales
,”
Science
173
,
585
597
(
1971
).
101.
H. E.
Winn
and
P. J.
Perkins
, “
Distribution and sounds of the minke whale, with a review of mysticete sounds
,”
Cetology
19
,
1
12
(
1976
).
102.
R. H.
Love
, “
Target strengths of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
54
,
1312
1315
(
1973
).
103.
L. N.
Frazer
,
E.
Mercado
III
, and
A.
Tolstoy
, “
Understanding humpback whale sonar: A physicist’s view
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
100
,
2644
(
1996
).
104.
L. N. Frazer and E. Mercado III, “A sonar model for humpback whale song,” IEEE J. Ocean Eng. (in press).
105.
E.
Mercado
III
,
L.
Frazer
, and
L. M.
Herman
, “
Humpback whale sonar
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
100
,
2644
(
1996
).
106.
J. D.
Crawford
,
P.
Jacob
, and
V.
Benech
, “
Sound production and reproductive ecology of strongly acoustic fish in Africa: Pollimyrus isidori, Mormyridae
,”
Behaviour
134
,
677
725
(
1997
).
107.
T. G.
Forrest
,
G. L.
Miller
, and
J. R.
Zagar
, “
Sound propagation in shallow water: Implications for acoustic communication by aquatic animals
,”
Bioacoustics
4
,
259
270
(
1993
).
108.
V. M.
Janik
and
P. J. B.
Slater
, “
Vocal learning in mammals
,”
Adv. Study Behav.
26
,
59
94
(
1997
).
109.
P. M. Waser and R. H. Wiley, “Mechanisms and evolution of spacing in animals,” in Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology, Vol. 3: Social Behavior and Communication, edited by P. Marler and T. G. Vandenbergh (Plenum, New York, 1979), pp. 159–223.
110.
W. W. L.
Au
,
D. A.
Carder
,
R. H.
Penner
, and
B. L.
Scronce
, “
Demonstration of adaptation in beluga echolocation signals
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
80
,
688
691
(
1985
).
111.
N. Suga, “Processing of auditory information carried by species-specific complex sounds,” in The Cognitive Neurosciences, edited by M. S. Gazzaniga (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1995), pp. 295–313.
112.
E. S.
Morton
, “
Predictions from the ranging hypothesis for the evolution of long distance signals in birds
,”
Behaviour
99
,
65
86
(
1986
).
113.
E. S.
Morton
, “
Degradation and signal ranging in birds: Memory matters
,”
Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol.
42
,
135
137
(
1998
).
114.
L. N. Guinee, K. Chu, and E. M. Dorsey, “Changes over time in the songs of known individual humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae),” in Communication and Behavior of Whales, edited by R. Payne (Westview, Boulder, 1983), pp. 59–80.
115.
K. Payne, P. Tyack, and R. Payne, “Progressive changes in the songs of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae): A detailed analysis of two seasons in Hawaii,” in Communication and Behavior of Whales, edited by R. Payne (Westview, Boulder, 1983), pp. 9–57.
116.
E. K. Westwood. ORCA ver1.6b User’s Guide. Technical Report at ftp.arlut.utexas.edu; pub/westwood, Applied Research Laboratories, University of Texas, 1997.
117.
R. W.
Bannister
and
M. A.
Pedersen
, “
Low-frequency surface interference effects in long-range sound propagation
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
69
,
76
83
(
1981
).
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.