The Z machine is a current driver producing up to 30 MA in 100 ns that utilizes a wide range of diagnostics to assess accelerator performance and target behavior conduct experiments that use the Z target as a source of radiation or high pressures. We review the existing suite of diagnostic systems, including their locations and primary configurations. The diagnostics are grouped in the following categories: pulsed power diagnostics, x-ray power and energy, x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray imaging (including backlighting, power flow, and velocimetry), and nuclear detectors (including neutron activation). We will also briefly summarize the primary imaging detectors we use at Z: image plates, x-ray and visible film, microchannel plates, and the ultrafast x-ray imager. The Z shot produces a harsh environment that interferes with diagnostic operation and data retrieval. We term these detrimental processes “threats” of which only partial quantifications and precise sources are known. We summarize the threats and describe techniques utilized in many of the systems to reduce noise and backgrounds.
Radiation, optical, power flow, and electrical diagnostics at the Z facility: Layout and techniques utilized to operate in the harsh environment
Note: Paper published as part of the Special Topic on Diagnostics for Inertial Confinement Fusion.
T. J. Webb, D. E. Bliss, G. A. Chandler, D. H. Dolan, G. Dunham, A. Edens, E. Harding, M. D. Johnston, M. C. Jones, S. Langendorf, M. Mangan, A. J. Maurer, C. A. McCoy, N. W. Moore, R. Presura, A. M. Steiner, M. Wu, D. A. Yager-Elorriaga, K. C. Yates; Radiation, optical, power flow, and electrical diagnostics at the Z facility: Layout and techniques utilized to operate in the harsh environment. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1 March 2023; 94 (3): 031102. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0123448
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