Two pairs of space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometers working at 5–138 Å with different vertical observation ranges of −7 ≤ Z ≤ 19 and −18 ≤ Z ≤ 8 cm have been newly developed to observe the radial profile of impurity line emissions and to study the transport of high-Z impurity ions intrinsically existing in EAST tokamak plasmas. Both spectrometers are equipped with a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detector (Andor Marana-X 4.2B-6, Oxford Instruments) with sensitive area of 13.3 × 13.3 mm2 and number of pixels equal to 2048 × 2048 (6.5 × 6.5 µm2/pixels). Compared to the currently operating space-resolved EUV spectrometers with a charge-coupled detector (CCD: 1024 × 255 pixels, 26 × 26 µm2) working at 30–520 Å, this spectrometer’s performance was substantially improved by using the CMOS detector. First, the spectral resolution measured at full width at half maximum was improved in the whole wavelength range, e.g., Δλ1/2_CMOS = 0.092 Å and Δλ1/2_CCD = 0.124 Å at C VI 33.73 Å and Δλ1/2_CMOS = 0.104 Å and Δλ1/2_CCD = 0.228 Å at Mo XXXI 115.999 Å, thus enabling a more accurate analysis of spectra with complicated structure such as tungsten unresolved transition array in the range 45–65 Å. Second, the temporal resolution was largely improved due to the high-speed data acquisition system of the CMOS detector, e.g., Δt_CMOS = 15 ms/frame and Δt_CCD = 200 ms/frame at routine operation in the radial profile measurement. Third, signal saturation issues that occurred when using the old CCD sensor during impurity accumulation now disappeared entirely using the CMOS detector due to lower exposure time at high readout rates, which largely improved the observation performance in similar impurity burst events. The above-mentioned performance improvements of the space-resolved EUV spectrometer led to a rapid change in the W XXXIII (52.22 Å) radial profile during a single cycle of low-frequency sawtooth oscillation with fst = 5–6 Hz at a sufficient detector count rate.
Performance improvement of space-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectrometer by use of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor detectors at the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak
Yunxin Cheng, Ling Zhang, Shigeru Morita, Ailan Hu, Zhenwei Wu, Zong Xu, Yanmin Duan, Liqing Xu, Long Zhong, Fengling Zhang, Wenmin Zhang, Zihang Zhao, Weikuan Zhao, Zhengwei Li, Haiqing Liu; Performance improvement of space-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectrometer by use of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor detectors at the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1 December 2022; 93 (12): 123501. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0104225
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