We present a laboratory electromagnet capable of generating magnetic fields up to ±0.48 T, specifically designed as a perpendicular flux source for thin film samples in an ambient environment. The magnet features a 250 mm diameter clear access bore above the sample plane, thus offering compatibility with a wide variety of experimental apparatus. Despite its generous size, the magnet thermally dissipates less than 1 kW at maximum field. A shaped ferromagnetic core is used to amplify and homogenize the field B, leading to an estimated uniformity of ±1.5 mT (≲0.3%) in B within a 28 mm2 zone at maximum field. The sample stage is thermally regulated and isolated from the magnet, enabling temperature control with ±5 mK precision even at elevated magnetic fields.

1.
S. N.
Piramanayagam
, “
Perpendicular recording media for hard disk drives
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
102
,
011301
(
2007
).
2.
S.
Ikeda
,
K.
Miura
,
H.
Yamamoto
,
K.
Mizunuma
,
H. D.
Gan
,
M.
Endo
,
S.
Kanai
,
J.
Hayakawa
,
F.
Matsukura
, and
H.
Ohno
, “
A perpendicular-anisotropy CoFeB-MgO magnetic tunnel junction
,”
Nat. Mater.
9
,
721
(
2010
).
3.
F.
Hellman
,
A.
Hoffmann
,
Y.
Tserkovnyak
,
G. S. D.
Beach
,
E. E.
Fullerton
,
C.
Leighton
,
A. H.
MacDonald
,
D. C.
Ralph
,
D. A.
Arena
,
H. A.
Dürr
,
P.
Fischer
,
J.
Grollier
,
J. P.
Heremans
,
T.
Jungwirth
,
A. V.
Kimel
,
B.
Koopmans
,
I. N.
Krivorotov
,
S. J.
May
,
A. K.
Petford-Long
,
J. M.
Rondinelli
,
N.
Samarth
,
I. K.
Schuller
,
A. N.
Slavin
,
M. D.
Stiles
,
O.
Tchernyshyov
,
A.
Thiaville
, and
B. L.
Zink
, “
Interface-induced phenomena in magnetism
,”
Rev. Mod. Phys.
89
,
025006
(
2017
).
4.
C.
Moreau-Luchaire
,
C.
Moutafis
,
N.
Reyren
,
J.
Sampaio
,
C. A. F.
Vaz
,
N.
Van Horne
,
K.
Bouzehouane
,
K.
Garcia
,
C.
Deranlot
,
P.
Warnicke
,
P.
Wohlhüter
,
J.-M.
George
,
M.
Weigand
,
J.
Raabe
,
V.
Cros
, and
A.
Fert
, “
Additive interfacial chiral interaction in multilayers for stabilization of small individual skyrmions at room temperature
,”
Nat. Nanotechnol.
11
,
444
(
2016
).
5.
A.
Soumyanarayanan
,
M.
Raju
,
A. L.
Gonzalez Oyarce
,
A. K. C.
Tan
,
M.-Y.
Im
,
A. P.
Petrović
,
P.
Ho
,
K. H.
Khoo
,
M.
Tran
,
C. K.
Gan
,
F.
Ernult
, and
C.
Panagopoulos
, “
Tunable room-temperature magnetic skyrmions in Ir/Fe/Co/Pt multilayers
,”
Nat. Mater.
16
,
898
904
(
2017
).
6.
A.
Fert
,
V.
Cros
, and
J.
Sampaio
, “
Skyrmions on the track
,”
Nat. Nanotechnol.
8
,
152
156
(
2013
).
7.
K. M.
Song
,
J.-S.
Jeong
,
B.
Pan
,
X.
Zhang
,
J.
Xia
,
S.
Cha
,
T.-E.
Park
,
K.
Kim
,
S.
Finizio
,
J.
Raabe
,
J.
Chang
,
Y.
Zhou
,
W.
Zhao
,
W.
Kang
,
H.
Ju
, and
S.
Woo
, “
Skyrmion-based artificial synapses for neuromorphic computing
,”
Nat. Electron.
3
,
148
155
(
2020
).
8.
J.
Igarashi
,
J.
Llandro
,
H.
Sato
,
F.
Matsukura
, and
H.
Ohno
, “
Magnetic-field-angle dependence of coercivity in CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular easy axis
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
111
,
132407
(
2017
).
9.
C.
Moutafis
,
S.
Komineas
,
C. A.
Vaz
,
J. A.
Bland
,
T.
Shima
,
T.
Seki
, and
K.
Takanashi
, “
Magnetic bubbles in FePt nanodots with perpendicular anisotropy
,”
Phys. Rev. B
76
,
104426
(
2007
).
10.
R.
Lavrijsen
,
J. H.
Franken
,
J. T.
Kohlhepp
,
H. J.
Swagten
, and
B.
Koopmans
, “
Controlled domain-wall injection in perpendicularly magnetized strips
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
96
,
222502
(
2010
).
11.
A.
Talapatra
and
J.
Mohanty
, “
Laser induced local modification of magnetic domain in Co/Pt multilayer
,”
J. Magn. Magn. Mater.
418
,
224
230
(
2016
).
12.
P. M.
Shepley
,
H.
Tunnicliffe
,
K.
Shahbazi
,
G.
Burnell
, and
T. A.
Moore
, “
Magnetic properties, domain-wall creep motion, and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in Pt/Co/Ir thin films
,”
Phys. Rev. B
97
,
134417
(
2018
).
13.
S.
Mangin
,
D.
Ravelosona
,
J. A.
Katine
,
M. J.
Carey
,
B. D.
Terris
, and
E. E.
Fullerton
, “
Current-induced magnetization reversal in nanopillars with perpendicular anisotropy
,”
Nat. Mater.
5
,
210
215
(
2006
).
14.
E. M.
Williams
, “
The DORF effect: Magnetization ripple in particulate media
,”
IEEE Trans. Magn.
18
,
1086
(
1982
).
15.
R.
Proksch
,
E.
Runge
,
P. K.
Hansma
,
S.
Foss
, and
B.
Walsh
, “
High field magnetic force microscopy
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
78
,
3303
3307
(
1995
).
16.
R. D.
Gomez
,
E. R.
Burke
, and
I. D.
Mayergoyz
, “
Magnetic imaging in the presence of external fields: Technique and applications (invited)
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
79
,
6441
(
1996
).
17.
J.
Mohanty
,
R.
Engel-Herbert
, and
T.
Hesjedal
, “
Variable magnetic field and temperature magnetic force microscopy
,”
Appl. Phys. A
81
,
1359
(
2005
).
18.
T. A.
Harroun
,
C. M.
Desrochers
,
M.-P.
Nieh
,
M. J.
Watson
, and
J.
Katsaras
, “
0.9 T static magnetic field and temperature-controlled specimen environment for use with general-purpose optical microscopes
,”
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
77
,
014102
(
2006
).
19.
R.
Oldenbourg
and
W. C.
Phillips
, “
Small permanent magnet for fields up to 2.6 T
,”
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
57
,
2362
2365
(
1986
).
20.
O.
Cugat
,
P.
Hansson
, and
J. M. D.
Coey
, “
Permanent magnet variable flux sources
,”
IEEE Trans. Magn.
30
,
4602
4604
(
1994
).
21.
N. K.
Duong
,
M.
Raju
,
A. P.
Petrović
,
R.
Tomasello
,
G.
Finocchio
, and
C.
Panagopoulos
, “
Stabilizing zero-field skyrmions in Ir/Fe/Co/Pt thin film multilayers by magnetic history control
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
114
,
072401
(
2019
).
22.
Model VFM4, Asylum Research, Oxford Instruments, Goleta, CA.
23.
Vertical field option, NTEGRA nanolaboratory, NT-MDT Spectrum Instruments, Moscow, Russia.
24.
Perpendicular Electromagnet, Evico Magnetics GmbH, Dresden, Germany.
25.
Perpendicular Coil, Evico Magnetics GmbH, Dresden, Germany.
26.
D.
Meeker
, “
Finite element method magnetics
,” www.femm.info.
27.
Model BOP 36-28GL, Kepco Inc., Flushing, NY.
28.
EP21TCHT-1 single-component epoxy, Master Bond Inc., Hackensack, NJ.
29.
060”x.175” Heavy GP/MR-200 rectangular MW 36 copper magnet wire, Superior Essex Inc., Atlanta, GA.
30.
MC4236/W4236 two component epoxy potting compound, Elantas Malaysia Sdn. Bhd., Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
31.
Model XHGT-9060, Lake Shore Cryotronics Inc., Westerville, OH.
32.
Vacoflux 50, Vacuumschmelze GmbH, Hanau, Germany.
33.
Model PT-103, Lake Shore Cryotronics Inc., Westerville, OH.
34.
Model 325, Lake Shore Cryotronics Inc., Westerville, OH.
35.
Adaptive Models ET-063-08-15 and ET-031-08-15-RS, European Thermodynamics Ltd., Kibworth, United Kingdom.
36.
Epo-Tek E4110, Epoxy Technology Inc., Billerica, MA.
37.
Model PTR21-2.5, Kepco Inc., Flushing, NY.
38.
Rogers Corporation RO3003, Chandler, AZ.
39.
Epo-Tek H70E-2, Epoxy Technology Inc., Billerica, MA.
40.
Models LI-102 and LI-301, Thermo Electric Devices, Draycott, United Kingdom.
41.
Model FL601, Julabo GmbH, Seelbach, Germany.
You do not currently have access to this content.