We have developed a new internally heated diamond anvil cell (DAC) system for in situ high-pressure and high-temperature x-ray and optical experiments. We have adopted a self-heating W/Re gasket design allowing for both sample confinement and heating. This solution has been seldom used in the past but proved to be very efficient to reduce the size of the heating spot near the sample region, improving heating and cooling rates as compared to other resistive heating strategies. The system has been widely tested under high-temperature conditions by performing several thermal emission measurements. A robust relationship between electric power and average sample temperature inside the DAC has been established up to about 1500 K by a measurement campaign on different simple substances. A micro-Raman spectrometer was used for various in situ optical measurements and allowed us to map the temperature distribution of the sample. The distribution resulted to be uniform within the typical uncertainty of these measurements (5% at 1000 K). The high-temperature performances of the DAC were also verified in a series of XAS (x-ray absorption spectroscopy) experiments using both nano-polycrystalline and single-crystal diamond anvils. XAS measurements of germanium at 3.5 GPa were obtained in the 300 K–1300 K range, studying the melting transition and nucleation to the crystal phase. The achievable heating and cooling rates of the DAC were studied exploiting a XAS dispersive setup, collecting series of near-edge XAS spectra with sub-second time resolution. An original XAS-based dynamical temperature calibration procedure was developed and used to monitor the sample and diamond temperatures during the application of constant power cycles, indicating that heating and cooling rates in the 100 K/s range can be easily achieved using this device.

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