A furnace was developed and characterized to allow for safe and controlled gas-loading or degassing of alloys. This oven is able to process samples under varying atmospheres, such as high vacuum or nitrogen containing 10 vol. % deuterium, as well as for pressures up to 800 hPa. Thermal desorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy demonstrate the enhancing effects of high loading-gas concentration, high pressures, high temperatures above liquidus (50–150 K above the liquidus temperature of the cast hypoeutectic aluminum–copper model-alloy), and long holding times (up to 60 min) on the amount of retained gas in the solidified sample. Lack of copper segregation in the casting is confirmed by energy dispersive x-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. It is shown that the facility allows for the controlled generation of distinct amounts of gas pores, down to a nil amount (only shrinkage porosity appearing in the sample).

1.
L. H.
Shang
,
F.
Paray
,
J. E.
Gruzleski
,
S.
Bergeron
,
C.
Mercadante
, and
C. A.
Loong
, “
Prediction of microporosity in Al–Si castings in low pressure permanent mould casting using criteria functions
,”
Int. J. Cast Met. Res.
17
(
4
),
193
200
(
2004
).
2.
M.
Felberbaum
,
Porosity in Aluminum Alloys: Visualization, Characterization, and Modeling
(
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
,
2010
).
3.
I. B.
Ulanovskiy
,
Hydrogen Diffusion and Porosity Formation in Aluminium
(
MISIS National University of Technology and Science
,
Moscow
,
2015
).
4.
A. G.
Murphy
,
D. J.
Browne
,
Y.
Houltz
, and
R. H.
Mathiesen
, “
In situ x-ray observations of gas porosity interactions with dendritic microstructures during solidification of Al-based alloys
,”
IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng.
117
(
1
),
012067
(
2016
).
5.
M.
Wu
,
A.
Ludwig
, and
A.
Kharicha
, “
A four phase model for the macrosegregation and shrinkage cavity during solidification of steel ingot
,”
Appl. Math. Modell.
41
,
102
120
(
2017
).
6.
J. P.
Anson
and
J. E.
Gruzleski
, “
The quantitative discrimination between shrinkage and gas microporosity in cast aluminum alloys using spatial data analysis
,”
Mater. Charact.
43
(
5
),
319
335
(
1999
).
7.
M.
Mukherjee
,
F.
García-Moreno
,
C.
Jiménez
,
A.
Rack
, and
J.
Banhart
, “
Microporosity in aluminium foams
,”
Acta Mater.
131
,
156
168
(
2017
).
8.
J. A.
Dantzig
and
M.
Rappaz
,
Solidification
(
EPFL Press
,
Lausanne
,
2016
).
9.
J.
Campbell
,
Castings
, 2nd ed. (
Butterworth-Heinemann
,
Oxford
,
2003
).
10.
R. M.
Hilbinger
,
S.
Gerth
, and
P.
Randelzhofer
, “
Erzeugung und charakterisierung porenbehafteter prüfkörper für schwingprüfung und gießsimulation
,”
Materialwiss. Werkstofftech.
48
(
2
),
77
87
(
2017
).
11.
NASA
, Safety standards for hydrogen and hydrogen systems. Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, Washington DC 20546,
1997
.
12.
J. H. S.
Lee
,
R.
Kynstantus
,
C. M.
Guirao
,
W. A.
Benedick
, and
J. E.
Shepherd
, “
Hydrogen-air detonations
,” in
Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on the Impact of Hydrogen on Water Reactor Safety (SAND82-2456)
,
1982
.
13.
J. H. S.
Lee
, “
Initiation of gaseous detonation
,”
Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.
28
,
75
104
(
1977
).
14.
M. M.
Avedesian
and
H.
Baker
,
Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys
(
ASM International
,
Almere
,
1999
).
15.
ASTM
,
E3-11: Standard Guide for Preparation of Metallographic Specimens
(
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
,
2017
).
16.
J. I.
Goldstein
,
D. E.
Newbury
,
D. C.
Joy
,
C. E.
Lyman
,
P.
Echlin
,
E.
Lifshin
,
L. C.
Sawyer
, and
J. R.
Michael
,
Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis
, 3rd ed. (
Kluwer
,
New York
,
2003
).
17.
ASTM
,
E1508-12a: Standard Guide for Quantitative Analysis by Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy
(
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
,
2012
).
18.
INCA
,
Operator Manual Issue 2.1
(
INCA Energy
,
2006
).
19.
M.
Mayer
, SIMNRA User’s Guide, Report 9/113,
Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik
,
Garching
,
1997
.
20.
J. R.
Tesmer
and
M.
Nastasi
,
Handbook of Modern Ion Beam Materials Analysis
(
Material Research Society
,
Pittsburgh, PA
,
1995
).
21.
K.
Verbeken
, “
Analysing hydrogen in metals: Bulk thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) methods
,”
Gaseous Hydrogen Embrittlement Mater. Energy Technol.
1
,
27
55
(
2012
).
22.
L.
Selwyn
, “
How to determine metal density
,” Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI) Notes 9/10,
2016
.
23.
F.
Bertelli
,
C.
Brito
,
I. L.
Ferreira
,
G.
Reinhart
,
H.
Nguyen-Thi
,
N.
Mangelinck-Noël
,
N.
Cheung
, and
A.
Garcia
, “
Cooling thermal parameters, microstructure, segregation and hardness in directionally solidified Al–Sn-(Si; Cu) alloys
,”
Mater. Des.
72
,
31
42
(
2015
).
24.
E. L.
Cussler
,
Diffusion, Mass Transfer in Fluid Systems
(
Cambridge University Press
,
New York
,
2009
).
You do not currently have access to this content.