The sensing applications of nitrogen-vacancy color centers in a diamond require an efficient manipulation of the color center ground state over the whole volume of an ensemble. Thus, it is necessary to produce strong uniform magnetic fields of a well-defined circular polarization at microwave frequencies. In this paper, we develop a circularly polarized microwave antenna based on the excitation of hybrid electromagnetic modes in a high-permittivity dielectric resonator. The influence of the geometrical parameters of the antenna on the reflection coefficient and magnetic field magnitude is studied numerically and discussed. The Rabi frequencies and their inhomogeneity over the volume of a commercially available diamond sample are calculated. With respect to the numerical predictions, a Rabi frequency as high as 34 MHz with an inhomogeneity of 4% over a 1.2 mm × ∅2.5 mm (5.9 mm3 in volume) diamond sample can be achieved for 10 W of input power at room temperature. The antenna prototype is fabricated, and experimental investigations of its characteristics are performed in microwave and optical frequency domains. The circular polarization of the microwave magnetic field with an ellipticity of 0.94 is demonstrated experimentally. The Rabi oscillation frequency and its inhomogeneity are measured, and the results demonstrate a good agreement with the numerically predicted results.

1.
J. F.
Barry
,
M. J.
Turner
,
J. M.
Schloss
,
D. R.
Glenn
,
Y.
Song
,
M. D.
Lukin
,
H.
Park
, and
R. L.
Walsworth
, “
Optical magnetic detection of single-neuron action potentials using quantum defects in diamond
,”
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.
113
,
14133
14138
(
2016
).
2.
I. V.
Fedotov
,
N. A.
Safronov
,
Y. G.
Ermakova
,
M. E.
Matlashov
,
D. A.
Sidorov-Biryukov
,
A. B.
Fedotov
,
V. V.
Belousov
, and
A. M.
Zheltikov
, “
Fiber-optic control and thermometry of single-cell thermosensation logic
,”
Sci. Rep.
5
,
15737
(
2015
).
3.
S.
Ahmadi
,
H. A. R.
El-Ella
,
A. M.
Wojciechowski
,
T.
Gehring
,
J. O. B.
Hansen
,
A.
Huck
, and
U. L.
Andersen
, “
Nitrogen-vacancy ensemble magnetometry based on pump absorption
,”
Phys. Rev. B
97
,
024105
(
2018
).
4.
T.
Wolf
,
P.
Neumann
,
K.
Nakamura
,
H.
Sumiya
,
T.
Ohshima
,
J.
Isoya
, and
J.
Wrachtrup
, “
Subpicotesla diamond magnetometry
,”
Phys. Rev. X
5
,
041001
(
2015
).
5.
V. M.
Acosta
,
E.
Bauch
,
M. P.
Ledbetter
,
C.
Santori
,
K.-M. C.
Fu
,
P. E.
Barclay
,
R. G.
Beausoleil
,
H.
Linget
,
J. F.
Roch
,
F.
Treussart
,
S.
Chemerisov
,
W.
Gawlik
, and
D.
Budker
, “
Diamonds with a high density of nitrogen-vacancy centers for magnetometry applications
,”
Phys. Rev. B
80
,
115202
(
2009
).
6.
C. S.
Shin
,
C. E.
Avalos
,
M. C.
Butler
,
H.-J.
Wang
,
S. J.
Seltzer
,
R.-B.
Liu
,
A.
Pines
, and
V. S.
Bajaj
, “
Suppression of electron spin decoherence of the diamond NV center by a transverse magnetic field
,”
Phys. Rev. B
88
,
161412
(
2013
).
7.
E. R.
Eisenach
,
J. F.
Barry
,
L. M.
Pham
,
R. G.
Rojas
,
D. R.
Englund
, and
D. A.
Braje
, “
Broadband loop gap resonator for nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond
,”
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
89
,
094705
(
2018
).
8.
P.
Kapitanova
,
V. V.
Soshenko
,
V. V.
Vorobyov
,
D.
Dobrykh
,
S. V.
Bolshedvorskii
,
V. N.
Sorokin
, and
A. V.
Akimov
, “
3D uniform manipulation of NV centers in diamond using a dielectric resonator antenna
,”
JETP Lett.
108
,
588
595
(
2018
).
9.
L. M.
Pham
,
N.
Bar-Gill
,
D.
Le Sage
,
C.
Belthangady
,
A.
Stacey
,
M.
Markham
,
D. J.
Twitchen
,
M. D.
Lukin
, and
R. L.
Walsworth
, “
Enhanced metrology using preferential orientation of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond
,”
Phys. Rev. B
86
,
121202
(
2012
).
10.
C.
Osterkamp
,
M.
Mangold
,
J.
Lang
,
P.
Balasubramanian
,
T.
Teraji
,
B.
Naydenov
, and
F.
Jelezko
, “
Engineering preferentially-aligned nitrogen-vacancy centre ensembles in CVD grown diamond
,”
Sci. Rep.
9
,
5786
(
2019
).
11.
G.
Kukucska
,
V.
Zólyomi
, and
J.
Koltai
, “
Characterization of epitaxial silicene with Raman spectroscopy
,”
Phys. Rev. B
98
,
075437
(
2018
).
12.
J.
Michl
,
T.
Teraji
,
S.
Zaiser
,
I.
Jakobi
,
G.
Waldherr
,
F.
Dolde
,
P.
Neumann
,
M. W.
Doherty
,
N. B.
Manson
,
J.
Isoya
, and
J.
Wrachtrup
, “
Perfect alignment and preferential orientation of nitrogen-vacancy centers during chemical vapor deposition diamond growth on (111) surfaces
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
104
,
102407
(
2014
).
13.
T.
Fukui
,
Y.
Doi
,
T.
Miyazaki
,
Y.
Miyamoto
,
H.
Kato
,
T.
Matsumoto
,
T.
Makino
,
S.
Yamasaki
,
R.
Morimoto
,
N.
Tokuda
,
M.
Hatano
,
Y.
Sakagawa
,
H.
Morishita
,
T.
Tashima
,
S.
Miwa
,
Y.
Suzuki
, and
N.
Mizuochi
, “
Perfect selective alignment of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond
,”
Appl. Phys. Express
7
,
055201
(
2014
).
14.
H.
Ishiwata
,
M.
Nakajima
,
K.
Tahara
,
H.
Ozawa
,
T.
Iwasaki
, and
M.
Hatano
, “
Perfectly aligned shallow ensemble nitrogen-vacancy centers in (111) diamond
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
111
,
043103
(
2017
).
15.
H.
Clevenson
,
M. E.
Trusheim
,
C.
Teale
,
T.
Schröder
,
D.
Braje
, and
D.
Englund
, “
Broadband magnetometry and temperature sensing with a light-trapping diamond waveguide
,”
Nat. Phys.
11
,
393
397
(
2015
).
16.
L. T.
Hall
,
G. C. G.
Beart
,
E. A.
Thomas
,
D. A.
Simpson
,
L. P.
McGuinness
,
J. H.
Cole
,
J. H.
Manton
,
R. E.
Scholten
,
F.
Jelezko
,
J.
Wrachtrup
,
S.
Petrou
, and
L. C. L.
Hollenberg
, “
High spatial and temporal resolution wide-field imaging of neuron activity using quantum NV-diamond
,”
Sci. Rep.
2
,
401
(
2012
).
17.
D.
Le Sage
,
L. M.
Pham
,
N.
Bar-Gill
,
C.
Belthangady
,
M. D.
Lukin
,
A.
Yacoby
, and
R. L.
Walsworth
, “
Efficient photon detection from color centers in a diamond optical waveguide
,”
Phys. Rev. B
85
,
121202
(
2012
).
18.
H.
Zheng
,
J.
Xu
,
G. Z.
Iwata
,
T.
Lenz
,
J.
Michl
,
B.
Yavkin
,
K.
Nakamura
,
H.
Sumiya
,
T.
Ohshima
,
J.
Isoya
,
J.
Wrachtrup
,
A.
Wickenbrock
, and
D.
Budker
, “
Zero-field magnetometry based on nitrogen-vacancy ensembles in diamond
,”
Phys. Rev. Appl.
11
,
064068
(
2019
).
19.
J.-P.
Tetienne
,
T.
Hingant
,
L.
Rondin
,
S.
Rohart
,
A.
Thiaville
,
J.-F.
Roch
, and
V.
Jacques
, “
Quantitative stray field imaging of a magnetic vortex core
,”
Phys. Rev. B
88
,
214408
(
2013
).
20.
K.
Bayat
,
J.
Choy
,
M.
Farrokh Baroughi
,
S.
Meesala
, and
M.
Loncar
, “
Efficient, uniform, and large area microwave magnetic coupling to NV centers in diamond using double split-ring resonators
,”
Nano Lett.
14
,
1208
1213
(
2014
).
21.
K.
Sasaki
,
Y.
Monnai
,
S.
Saijo
,
R.
Fujita
,
H.
Watanabe
,
J.
Ishi-Hayase
,
K. M.
Itoh
, and
E.
Abe
, “
Broadband, large-area microwave antenna for optically detected magnetic resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond
,”
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
87
,
053904
(
2016
).
22.
M.
Mrózek
,
J.
Mlynarczyk
,
D. S.
Rudnicki
, and
W.
Gawlik
, “
Circularly polarized microwaves for magnetic resonance study in the GHz range: Application to nitrogen-vacancy in diamonds
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
107
,
013505
(
2015
).
23.
J.-M.
Le Floch
,
N.
Delhote
,
M.
Aubourg
,
V.
Madrangeas
,
D.
Cros
,
S.
Castelletto
, and
M. E.
Tobar
, “
Towards achieving strong coupling in three-dimensional-cavity with solid state spin resonance
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
119
,
153901
(
2016
).
24.
V.
Yaroshenko
,
A.
Zalogina
,
D.
Zuev
,
P.
Kapitanova
, and
I.
Shadrivov
, “
Circularly polarized antenna for coherent manipulation of NV-centers in diamond
,”
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.
1092
,
012168
(
2018
).
25.
A.
Angerer
,
T.
Astner
,
D.
Wirtitsch
,
H.
Sumiya
,
S.
Onoda
,
J.
Isoya
,
S.
Putz
, and
J.
Majer
, “
Collective strong coupling with homogeneous Rabi frequencies using a 3D lumped element microwave resonator
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
109
,
033508
(
2016
).
26.
C. A.
Balanis
,
Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design
, 4th ed. (
John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
,
2016
).
27.
K. M.
Luk
and
K. W.
Leung
,
Dielectric Resonator Antennas
, 1st ed. (
Research Studies Pr Ltd.
,
2002
).
29.
E.
Nenasheva
,
N.
Kartenko
,
I.
Gaidamaka
,
O.
Trubitsyna
,
S.
Redozubov
,
A.
Dedyke
, and
A.
Kanareykin
,
J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.
30
,
395
400
(
2010
).
30.
J.
Herrmann
,
M. A.
Appleton
,
K.
Sasaki
,
Y.
Monnai
,
T.
Teraji
,
K. M.
Itoh
, and
E.
Abe
, “
Polarization- and frequency-tunable microwave circuit for selective excitation of nitrogen-vacancy spins in diamond
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
109
,
183111
(
2016
).
31.
M. O.
Scully
and
M. S.
Zubairy
,
Quantum Optics
(
Cambridge University Press
,
1997
), p.
152
.
32.
N.
Zhang
,
H.
Yuan
,
C.
Zhang
,
L.
Xu
,
J.
Zhang
,
G.
Bian
,
P.
Fan
,
H.
Yuan
, and
J.
Fang
, “
Microwave field uniformity impact on DC magnetic sensing with NV ensembles in diamond
,”
IEEE Sens. J.
19
,
451
456
(
2019
).
33.
L. F.
Chen
,
C. K.
Ong
,
C. P.
Neo
,
V. V.
Varadan
, and
V. K.
Varadan
,
Microwave Electronics: Measurement and Materials Characterization
(
Wiley-Blackwell
,
2005
).
34.
I. V.
Kotel’nikov
,
V. N.
Osadchii
,
D. M.
Kos’min
,
A. D.
Kanareikin
,
E. A.
Nenasheva
, and
A. B.
Kozyrev
, “
Method and apparatus for measuring the microwave parameters of nonlinear ceramics in control electric fields
,”
Meas. Tech.
57
,
1077
1081
(
2014
).
35.
P.
Kapitanova
,
V. V.
Soshenko
,
V. V.
Vorobyov
,
V.
Yaroshenko
,
S. V.
Bolshedvorsky
,
V.
Sorokin
, and
A.
Akimov
, “
Efficient, uniform, and large-volume microwave magnetic coupling to NV centers in diamond using dielectric resonator antennas
,”
Proc. SPIE
10733
,
1073306
(
2018
).
36.
O. R.
Rubinas
,
V. V.
Vorobyov
,
V. V.
Soshenko
,
S. V.
Bolshedvorskii
,
V. N.
Sorokin
,
A. N.
Smolyaninov
,
V. G.
Vins
,
A. P.
Yelisseyev
, and
A. V.
Akimov
, “
Spin properties of NV centers in high-pressure, high-temperature grown diamond
,”
J. Phys. Commun.
2
,
115003
(
2018
).
37.
S. A.
Aussenhofer
and
A. G.
Webb
, “
Design and evaluation of a detunable water-based quadrature HEM11 mode dielectric resonator as a new type of volume coil for high field MRI
,”
Magn. Reson. Med.
68
,
1325
1331
(
2012
).
You do not currently have access to this content.