Data acquired at Ceres by the visible channel of the Visible and InfraRed mapping spectrometer (VIR) on board the NASA Dawn spacecraft are affected by the temperatures of both the visible (VIS) and the infrared (IR) sensors, which are, respectively, a charged coupled device and a HgCdTe array. The variations of the visible channel temperatures measured during the sessions of acquisitions are correlated with the variations in the spectral slope and shape for all the mission phases. The IR channel temperature is more stable during the acquisitions; nonetheless, it is characterized by a bimodal distribution whether the cryocooler (and, therefore, the IR channel) is used or not during the visible channel operations. When the infrared channel temperature is high (175 K, i.e., not in use and with the cryocooler off), an additional negative slope and a distortion are observed in the spectra of the visible channel. We developed an empirical correction based on a reference spectrum for the whole dataset; it is designed to correct the two issues related to the sensor temperatures that we have identified. The reference spectrum is calculated to be representative of the global Ceres’ surface. It is also made of the data acquired when the visible and infrared channel temperatures are equal to the ones measured during an observation of the Arcturus star by VIR, which is consistent with several ground-based observations. The developed correction allows reliable analysis and mapping to be performed by minimizing the artifacts induced by fluctuations of the VIS temperature. Thanks to this correction, a direct comparison between different mission phases during which the VIR experienced different visible and infrared channel temperatures is now possible.

1.
C. T.
Russell
,
F.
Capaccioni
,
A.
Coradini
,
M. C.
De Sanctis
,
W. C.
Feldman
,
R.
Jaumann
,
H. U.
Keller
,
T. B.
McCord
,
L. A.
McFadden
,
S.
Mottola
,
C. M.
Pieters
,
T. H.
Prettyman
,
C. A.
Raymond
,
M. V.
Sykes
,
D. E.
Smith
, and
M. T.
Zuber
,
Earth, Moon, Planets
101
,
65
(
2007
).
2.
M. C.
De Sanctis
,
A.
Coradini
,
E.
Ammannito
,
G.
Filacchione
,
M. T.
Capria
,
S.
Fonte
,
G.
Magni
,
A.
Barbis
,
A.
Bini
,
M.
Dami
,
I.
Ficai-Veltroni
, and
G.
Preti
,
Space Sci. Rev.
163
,
329
(
2011
).
3.
H.
Sierks
,
H. U.
Keller
,
R.
Jaumann
,
H.
Michalik
,
T.
Behnke
,
F.
Bubenhagen
,
I.
Büttner
,
U.
Carsenty
,
U.
Christensen
,
R.
Enge
,
B.
Fiethe
,
P.
Gutiérrez Marqués
,
H.
Hartwig
,
H.
Krüger
,
W.
Kühne
,
T.
Maue
,
S.
Mottola
,
A.
Nathues
,
K.-U.
Reiche
,
M. L.
Richards
,
T.
Roatsch
,
S. E.
Schröder
,
I.
Szemerey
, and
M.
Tschentscher
,
Space Sci. Rev.
163
,
263
(
2011
).
4.
T. H.
Prettyman
,
W. C.
Feldman
,
H. Y.
McSween
,
R. D.
Dingler
,
D. C.
Enemark
,
D. E.
Patrick
,
S. A.
Storms
,
J. S.
Hendricks
,
J. P.
Morgenthaler
,
K. M.
Pitman
, and
R. C.
Reedy
,
Space Sci. Rev.
163
,
371
(
2011
).
5.
M.
Ciarniello
,
M. C.
De Sanctis
,
E.
Ammannito
,
A.
Raponi
,
F. G.
Carrozzo
,
A.
Longobardo
,
F.
Tosi
,
E.
Rognini
,
F.
Zambon
,
C. A.
Raymond
, and
C. T.
Russell
, in
Lunar and Planetary Science Conference
(
Lunar and Planetary Institute
,
2018
), Vol. 49, p.
1451
.
6.
M.
Ciarniello
,
M. C.
De Sanctis
,
A.
Raponi
,
B.
Rousseau
,
A.
Longobardo
,
J.-Y.
Li
,
S. E.
Schröder
,
F.
Tosi
,
F.
Zambon
,
E.
Ammannito
,
F. G.
Carrozzo
,
A.
Frigeri
,
E.
Rognini
,
C. A.
Raymond
, and
C. T.
Russel
(unpublished).
7.
G.
Filacchione
and
E.
Ammanito
, “
Dawn vir calibration document
,” Technical Report,
IAPS-INAF
,
2013
.
8.
F. G.
Carrozzo
,
A.
Raponi
,
M. C.
De Sanctis
,
E.
Ammannito
,
M.
Giardino
,
E.
D’Aversa
,
S.
Fonte
, and
F.
Tosi
,
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
87
,
124501
(
2016
).
9.
M.
Ciarniello
,
M.
De Sanctis
,
E.
Ammannito
,
A.
Raponi
,
A.
Longobardo
,
E.
Palomba
,
F.
Carrozzo
,
F.
Tosi
,
J.
Li
,
S.
Schröder
,
F.
Zambon
,
A.
Frigeri
,
S.
Fonte
,
M.
Giardino
,
C.
Pieters
,
C.
Raymond
, and
C.
Russell
,
Astron. Astrophys.
598
,
A130
(
2017
); e-print arXiv:1608.04643 [astro-ph.EP].
10.
A.
Nathues
,
M.
Hoffmann
,
T.
Platz
,
G.
Thangjam
,
E.
Cloutis
,
V.
Reddy
,
L. L.
Corre
,
J.-Y.
Li
,
K.
Mengel
,
A.
Rivkin
,
D.
Applin
,
M.
Schaefer
,
U.
Christensen
,
H.
Sierks
,
J.
Ripken
,
B.
Schmidt
,
H.
Hiesinger
,
M.
Sykes
,
H.
Sizemore
,
F.
Preusker
, and
C.
Russell
,
Planet. Space Sci.
134
,
122
(
2016
).
11.
E.
Ammannito
,
M. C.
DeSanctis
,
M.
Ciarniello
,
A.
Frigeri
,
F. G.
Carrozzo
,
J.-P.
Combe
,
B. L.
Ehlmann
,
S.
Marchi
,
H. Y.
McSween
,
A.
Raponi
,
M. J.
Toplis
,
F.
Tosi
,
J. C.
Castillo-Rogez
,
F.
Capaccioni
,
M. T.
Capria
,
S.
Fonte
,
M.
Giardino
,
R.
Jaumann
,
A.
Longobardo
,
S. P.
Joy
,
G.
Magni
,
T. B.
McCord
,
L. A.
McFadden
,
E.
Palomba
,
C. M.
Pieters
,
C. A.
Polanskey
,
M. D.
Rayman
,
C. A.
Raymond
,
P. M.
Schenk
,
F.
Zambon
, and
C. T.
Russell
,
Science
353
,
aaf4279
(
2016
).
12.
F. G.
Carrozzo
,
M. C.
De Sanctis
,
A.
Raponi
,
E.
Ammannito
,
J.
Castillo-Rogez
,
B. L.
Ehlmann
,
S.
Marchi
,
N.
Stein
,
M.
Ciarniello
,
F.
Tosi
,
F.
Capaccioni
,
M. T.
Capria
,
S.
Fonte
,
M.
Formisano
,
A.
Frigeri
,
M.
Giardino
,
A.
Longobardo
,
G.
Magni
,
E.
Palomba
,
F.
Zambon
,
C. A.
Raymond
, and
C. T.
Russell
,
Sci. Adv.
4
,
e1701645
(
2018
).
13.
A.
Frigeri
,
M.
De Sanctis
,
E.
Ammannito
,
F.
Tosi
,
M.
Ciarniello
,
F.
Zambon
,
F.
Carrozzo
,
A.
Raponi
,
T.
McCord
,
C.
Raymond
, and
C.
Russell
,
Icarus
318
,
14
(
2019
).
14.
R.
Kiehling
,
Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser.
69
,
465
(
1987
).
15.
G. A.
Alekseeva
,
A. A.
Arkharov
,
V. D.
Galkin
,
E. I.
Hagen-Thorn
,
I. N.
Nikanorova
,
V. V.
Novikov
,
V. B.
Novopashenny
,
V. P.
Pakhomov
,
E. V.
Ruban
, and
D. E.
Shchegolev
,
Baltic Astron.
5
,
603
(
1996
).
16.
J. T.
Rayner
,
M. C.
Cushing
, and
W. D.
Vacca
,
Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser.
185
,
289
(
2009
).
17.
B.
Rousseau
and
S.
Érard
, in
EPSC-DPS2019
(
European Science Foundation
,
2019
), p.
514
.
18.
A.
Nathues
,
T.
Platz
,
G.
Thangjam
,
M.
Hoffmann
,
J.
Scully
,
N.
Stein
,
O.
Ruesch
, and
K.
Mengel
,
Icarus
320
,
24
(
2019
).
19.
M. B.
Taylor
, in
Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XIV
, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, edited by
P.
Shopbell
,
M.
Britton
, and
R.
Ebert
(
2005
), Vol. 347, p.
29
.

Supplementary Material

You do not currently have access to this content.