A set of ultra-low value capacitance standards together with a programmable coaxial multiplexer (mux) have been developed. The mux allows the connection of these capacitances in parallel configuration and they together form the programmable capacitance standard. It is capable of producing decadic standard capacitances from 10 aF to at least 0.1 pF, which are later used to calibrate commercial precision capacitance bridges. This paper describes the realization and the characterization of this standard together with results obtained during the calibration of Andeen-Hagerling AH2700A bridges with a maximum uncertainty of 0.8 aF for all the capacitances generated ranging from 10 aF to 0.1 pF, at 1 kHz. These latter could be then integrated to functionalized AFMs or probe stations for quantitative capacitance measurements. Sources of uncertainties of the programmable capacitance standard, such as parasitic effects due to stray impedances, are evaluated and a method to overcome these hindrances is also discussed.

1.
S. B.
Desai
,
S. R.
Madhvapathy
,
A. B.
Sachid
,
J. P.
Llinas
,
Q.
Wang
,
G. H.
Ahn
,
G.
Pitner
,
M. J.
Kim
,
J.
Bokor
,
C.
Hu
,
H.-S. P.
Wong
, and
A.
Javey
,
Science
354
,
99
(
2016
).
2.
ITRS
,
International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors
, Metrology (
ITRS
,
2009
), http://www.itrs.net/links/2009ITRS/2009Chapters_2009Tables/2009_Metrology.pdf.
3.
G.
Binnig
,
C. F.
Quate
, and
C.
Gerber
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
56
,
930
(
1986
).
4.
G.
Meyer
and
N.
Amer
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
53
,
2400
(
1988
).
5.
J. C.
Rivoal
and
C.
Frétigny
,
Techniques de l’ingénieur
R1394-1
(
2005
) (in French).
6.
M. A.
Stangoni
, Ph.D. thesis,
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
,
Switzerland, Zurich
,
2005
.
7.
O.
Douheret
, Ph.D. thesis,
Royal Institute of Technology
,
Sweden, Stockholm
,
2004
.
8.
V. V.
Zavyalov
,
J. S.
McMurray
, and
C. C.
Williams
,
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
70
,
158
(
1999
).
9.
V. V.
Zavyalov
,
J. S.
McMurray
, and
C. C.
Williams
,
AIP Conf. Proc.
449
,
753
(
1998
).
10.
J. J.
Kopanski
,
J. F.
Marchiando
, and
B. G.
Rennex
,
J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.
20
(
5
),
2101
(
2002
).
11.
I.
Estevez
,
P.
Chrétien
,
O.
Schneegans
, and
F.
Houzé
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
104
,
083108
(
2014
).
12.
L.
Ciampolini
,
Scanning Capacitance Microscope Imaging and Modelling
, Series in Microelectronics Vol. 130 (
Hartung-Gorre
,
2002
).
13.
J. R.
Matey
and
J.
Blanc
,
J. Appl. Phys.
57
,
1437
(
1985
).
14.
D. T.
Lee
,
J. P.
Pelz
, and
B.
Bhushan
,
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
73
,
3525
(
2002
).
15.
W.
Brezna
,
M.
Schramboeck
,
A.
Lugstein
,
S.
Harasek
,
H.
Enichlmair
,
E.
Bertagnolli
,
E.
Gornik
, and
J.
Smoliner
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
83
,
4253
(
2003
).
16.
C. D.
Bugg
and
P.
J King
,
J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum.
21
,
147
(
1988
).
17.
I.
Humer
,
C.
Eckhardt
,
H. P.
Huber
,
F.
Kienberger
, and
J.
Smoliner
,
J. Appl. Phys.
111
,
074313
(
2012
).
18.
L.
Fumagalli
,
G.
Ferrari
,
M.
Sampietro
,
I.
Casuso
,
E.
Martinez
,
J.
Samitier
, and
G.
Gomila
,
Nanotechnology
17
,
4581
(
2006
).
19.
Transducer detects and produces pico-forces, PTB-news, 09.3, English version 2010.
20.
S. W.
Wang
and
M. S. C.
Lu
,
IEEE Sens. J.
10
(
5
),
991
(
2010
).
21.
M. Y.
Cheng
,
C. L.
Lin
,
Y. T.
Lai
, and
Y. J.
Yang
,
Sensors
10
,
10211
(
2010
).
22.
M. S.
Khan
,
O.
Séron
,
G.
Thuillier
, and
O.
Thévénot
,
CPEM 2016 Conference Digest
(
IEEE
,
2016
), p.
388
.
23.
G.
Trapon
,
O.
Thévenot
,
J. C.
Lacueille
, and
W.
Poirier
,
Metrologia
40
,
159
(
2003
).
24.
A. M.
Thompson
and
D. G.
Lampard
,
Nature
177
,
888
(
1956
).
25.
D. G.
Lampard
,
Proc. IEE Part C: Monogr.
104
(
6
),
271
(
1957
).
26.
S.
Awan
,
B.
Kibble
, and
J.
Schurr
,
Coaxial Electrical Circuits for Interference-Free Measurements
, Electrical Measurement Series 13 (
IET
,
2011
).
27.
L.
Callegaro
,
Electrical Impedance: Principles, Measurements, and Applications
(
CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
,
2013
).
28.
F.
Overney
,
D.
Corminboeuf
, and
E.
Moll
,
CPEM 2010 Conference Digest
(
IEEE
,
2010
), p.
420
.
29.
H. P.
Huber
,
M.
Moertelmaier
,
T. M.
Wallis
,
C. J.
Chaing
,
M.
Hochleitner
,
A.
Imtiaz
,
Y. J.
Oh
,
K.
Schilcher
,
M.
Dieudonne
,
J.
Smoliner
,
P.
Hinterdorfer
,
S. J.
Rosner
,
H.
Tanbakuchi
,
P.
Kabos
, and
F.
Kienberger
,
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
81
,
113701
(
2010
).
30.
Y.
Wang
and
L.
Lee
,
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
75
(
4
),
1158
(
2004
).
31.
A. D.
Koffman
,
R. D.
Lee
,
L.
Lee
,
S. H.
Shields
,
Z.
Liu
, and
Y.
Wang
,
CPEM 2014 Conference Digest
(
IEEE
,
2014
), p.
478
.
32.
2700A 50 Hz–20 kHz ultra-precision capacitance bridge
,”
Operation and Maintenance Manual
(
Andeen-Hagerling
,
2003
).
33.
O.
Thévenot
,
G.
Thuillier
,
R.
Sindjui
,
M. S.
Khan
,
O.
Séron
, and
F.
Piquemal
,
CPEM 2016 Conference Digest
, (
IEEE
,
2016
), p.
597
.
34.
S.
Kurokawa
and
A.
Sakai
,
J. Appl. Phys.
83
,
7416
(
1998
).
35.
P.
Gournay
,
O.
Thévenot
,
L.
Dupont
,
J. M.
David
, and
F.
Piquemal
,
Can. J. Phys.
89
(
1
),
169
(
2011
).
36.
W.
Poirier
,
F.
Schopfer
,
J.
Guignard
,
O.
Thévenot
, and
P.
Gournay
,
C. R. Phys.
12
(
4
),
347
(
2011
).
You do not currently have access to this content.