The sensing of carbon dioxide (CO2) at room temperature, which has potential applications in environmental monitoring, healthcare, mining, biotechnology, food industry, etc., is a challenge for the scientific community due to the relative inertness of CO2. Here, we propose a novel gas sensor based on clad-etched Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) with polyallylamine-amino-carbon nanotube coated on the surface of the core for detecting the concentrations of CO2 gas at room temperature, in ppm levels over a wide range (1000 ppm–4000 ppm). The limit of detection observed in polyallylamine-amino-carbon nanotube coated core-FBG has been found to be about 75 ppm. In this approach, when CO2 gas molecules interact with the polyallylamine-amino-carbon nanotube coated FBG, the effective refractive index of the fiber core changes, resulting in a shift in Bragg wavelength. The experimental data show a linear response of Bragg wavelength shift for increase in concentration of CO2 gas. Besides being reproducible and repeatable, the technique is fast, compact, and highly sensitive.

1.
C. D.
Thomas
 et al, “
Extinction risk from climate change
,”
Nature
427
,
145
148
(
2004
).
2.
O. E.
Sala
 et al, “
Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100
,”
Science
287
,
1770
1774
(
2000
).
3.
J. W.
Raich
and
W. H.
Schlesinger
, “
The global carbon dioxide flux in soil respiration and its relationship to vegetation and climate
,”
Tellus
44B
(
2
),
81
99
(
1992
).
4.
B.
Serban
,
A. K.
Sarin Kumar
,
S.
Costea
,
M.
Mihaila
,
O.
Buiu
,
M.
Brezeanu
,
N.
Varachiu
, and
C.
Cobianu
, “
Polymer-amino carbon nanotube nanocomposites for surface acoustic wave CO2 detection
,”
Rom. J. Inf. Sci. Technol.
12
(
3
),
376
384
(
2009
).
5.
J. W.
Gardner
, “
A brief history of electronic noses
,”
Sens. Actuators B
18
,
211
220
(
1994
).
6.
K.
Arshak
, “
A review of gas sensors employed in electronic nose applications
,”
Sens. Rev.
24
,
181
198
(
2004
).
7.
D.
James
 et al, “
Chemical sensors for electronic nose systems
,”
Microchim. Acta
149
,
1
17
(
2005
).
8.
G.
Eranna
,
B. C.
Joshi
,
D. P.
Runthala
, and
R. P.
Gupta
, “
Oxide materials for developing of integrated gas sensors-A comprehensive review
,”
Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.
29
,
111
188
(
2004
).
9.
H.
Bai
and
G.
Shi
, “
Gas sensors based on conducting polymers
,”
Sensors
7
,
267
307
(
2007
).
10.
Y.
Zhang
,
X.
He
,
J.
Li
,
Z.
Miao
, and
F.
Huang
, “
Fabrication and ethanol-sensing properties of micro gas sensor based on electrospun SnO2 nanofibers
,”
Sens. Actuators B
132
,
67
73
(
2008
).
11.
Y.
Wang
and
J. T. W.
Yeow
, “
A review of carbon nanotubes-based gas sensors
,”
J. Sens.
2009
,
1
24
(
2009
).
12.
M.
Endo
 et al, “
Potential applications of carbon nanotubes
,”
Top. Appl. Phys.
111
,
13
61
(
2008
).
13.
A.
Othonos
, “
Fiber Bragg gratings
,”
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
68
(
12
),
4309
4341
(
1997
).
14.
Y. J.
Rao
, “
Recent progress in applications of in-fibre Bragg grating sensors
,”
Opt. Laser Eng.
31
,
297
324
(
1999
).
15.
G.
Gagliardi
,
M.
Salza
,
S.
Avino
,
P.
Ferraro
, and
P.
De Natale
, “
Probing the ultimate limit of fiber-optic strain sensing
,”
Science
330
,
1081
1084
(
2010
).
16.
X.
Shu
,
K.
Chisholm
,
I.
Felmeri
,
K.
Sugden
,
A.
Gillooly
,
L.
Zhang
, and
I.
Bennion
, “
Highly sensitive transverse load sensing with reversible sampled fiber Bragg gratings
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
83
(
15
),
3003
3005
(
2003
).
17.
W.
Liang
,
Y.
Huang
,
Y.
Xu
,
R. K.
Lee
, and
A.
Yariv
, “
Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
86
(
15
),
151122
(
2005
).
18.
F. K.
Coradin
,
G. R. C.
Possetti
,
R. C.
Kamikawachi
,
M.
Muller
, and
J. L.
Fabris
, “
Etched fiber Bragg gratings sensors for water-ethanol mixtures: a comparative study
,”
J. Microwaves, Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl.
9
(
2
),
131
143
(
2010
).
19.
A. P.
Zhang
,
G.
Yan
,
S.
Gao
,
S.
He
,
B.
Kim
,
J.
Im
, and
Y.
Chung
, “
Microfluidic refractive-index sensors based on small-hole microstructured optical fiber Bragg gratings
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
98
(
22
),
221109
(
2011
).
20.
T. L.
Yeo
,
T.
Sun
,
K. T. V.
Grattan
,
D.
Parry
,
R.
Lade
, and
B. D.
Powell
, “
Characterisation of a polymer-coated fibre Bragg grating sensor for relative humidity sensing
,”
Sens. Actuators B
110
,
148
155
(
2005
).
21.
X. F.
Huang
,
D. R.
Sheng
,
K. F.
Cen
, and
H.
Zhou
, “
Low-cost relative humidity sensor based on thermoplastic polyimide-coated fiber Bragg grating
,”
Sens. Actuators B
127
,
518
524
(
2007
).
22.
R.
Montanini
, “
Wavelength-encoded optical psychrometer for relative humidity measurement
,”
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
78
,
025103
(
2007
).
23.
C. L.
Tien
,
H. W.
Chen
,
W. F.
Liu
,
S. S.
Jyu
,
S. W.
Lin
, and
Y. S.
Lin
, “
Hydrogen sensor based on side-polished fiber Bragg gratings coated with thin palladium film
,”
Thin Solid Films
516
,
5360
5363
(
2008
).
24.
L.
Ai
,
J. C.
Mau
,
W. F.
Liu
,
M. Y.
Fu
, and
T. C.
Chen
, “
Ammonia gas fiber sensor based on poly-aniline sensing film coated on superstructure fiber Bragg gratings
,”
Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.
49
,
3063
3066
(
2007
).
25.
K. O.
Hill
,
B.
Malo
,
F.
Bilodeau
,
D. C.
Johnson
, and
J.
Albert
, “
Bragg grating fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
62
(
10
),
1035
1037
(
1993
).
26.
D. A.
Pereira
and
J. L.
Santos
, “
Fiber Bragg grating sensing system for simultaneous measurement of salinity and temperature
,”
Opt. Eng.
43
(
2
),
299
304
(
2004
).
27.
B.
Serban
,
A. K.
Sarin Kumar
,
C.
Cobianu
,
O.
Buiu
,
S.
Costea
,
C.
Bostan
, and
N.
Varachiu
, “
Selection of gas sensing materials using the hard soft acid base theory; Application to surface acoustic wave CO2 detection
,” in
Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Semiconductor Conference (CAS)
(
IEEE
,
2010
), Vol.
1
, pp.
247
250
.
28.
M. S.
Nieuwenhuizen
and
A. J.
Nederlof
, “
A SAW gas sensor for carbon dioxide and water. Preliminary experiments
,”
Sens. Actuators B
2
,
97
(
1990
).
29.
K. G.
Ong
,
K.
Zeng
, and
C. A.
Grimes
, “
A wireless, passive carbon nanotube-based gas sensor
,”
IEEE Sens. J.
2
,
82
88
(
2002
).
30.
R.
Zhou
,
D.
Schmeisser
, and
W.
Gopel
, “
Mass sensitive detection of carbon dioxide by amino group-functionalized polymers
,”
Sens. Actuators B
33
,
188
193
(
1996
).
31.
P.
Lu
 et al, “
Resolving cross sensitivity of fiber Bragg gratings with different polymeric coatings
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
92
,
171112
(
2008
).
You do not currently have access to this content.