Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an imaging modality with great promise for high-contrast, high-sensitivity imaging of iron oxide tracers in animals and humans. In this paper, we present the first x-space MPI hardware and reconstruction software; show experimentally measured signals; detail our reconstruction technique; and present images of resolution and “angiography” phantoms.

1.
B.
Gleich
and
J.
Weizenecker
,
Nature(London)
435
,
1214
(
2005
).
2.
R. W.
Katzberg
and
C.
Haller
,
Kidney Int., Suppl.
S3
(
2006
).
3.
P. A.
McCullough
,
R.
Wolyn
,
L. L.
Rocher
,
R. N.
Levin
, and
W. W.
O’Neill
,
Am. J. Med.
103
,
368
(
1997
).
4.
P.
McCullough
,
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
51
,
1419
(
2008
).
5.
E. A.
Neuwelt
,
B. E.
Hamilton
,
C. G.
Varallyay
,
W. R.
Rooney
,
R. D.
Edelman
,
P. M.
Jacobs
, and
S. G.
Watnick
,
Kidney Int.
75
,
465
(
2009
).
6.
M.
Lu
,
M. H.
Cohen
,
D.
Rieves
, and
R.
Pazdur
,
Am. J. Hematol.
85
,
315
(
2010
).
7.
B.
Gleich
,
J.
Weizenecker
, and
J.
Borgert
,
Phys. Med. Biol.
53
,
N81
(
2008
).
8.
T.
Knopp
,
S.
Biederer
,
T.
Sattel
,
J.
Weizenecker
,
B.
Gleich
,
J.
Borgert
, and
T. M.
Buzug
,
Phys. Med. Biol.
54
,
385
(
2008
).
9.
T.
Knopp
,
T. F.
Sattel
,
S.
Biederer
,
J.
Rahmer
,
J.
Weizenecker
,
B.
Gleich
,
J.
Borgert
, and
T. M.
Buzug
,
IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging.
29
,
12
(
2010
).
10.
T.
Knopp
,
S.
Biederer
,
T.
Sattel
,
J.
Rahmer
,
J.
Weizenecker
,
B.
Gleich
,
J.
Borgert
, and
T.
Buzug
,
Med. Phys.
37
,
485
(
2010
).
11.
J.
Rahmer
,
J.
Weizenecker
,
B.
Gleich
, and
J.
Borgert
,
BMC Med. Imaging
,
9
,
4
(
2009
).
12.
J.
Weizenecker
,
J.
Borgert
, and
B.
Gleich
,
Phys. Med. Biol.
52
,
6363
(
2007
).
13.
P.
Goodwill
and
S.
Conolly
, in
Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Magnetic Particle Imaging, Lubeck, Germany, 2010
, edited by
T. M.
Buzug
(
World Scientific Publishers
,
2010
).
14.
P.
Goodwill
,
G.
Scott
,
P.
Stang
, and
S.
Conolly
,
IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging
28
,
1231
(
2009
).
15.
P. W.
Goodwill
and
S. M.
Conolly
,
IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging
29
,
1851
(
2010
).
16.
P.
Goodwill
and
S.
Conolly
,
IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging
30
,
1581
(
2011
).
17.
T.
Knopp
,
S.
Biederer
,
T. F.
Sattel
,
M.
Erbe
, and
T. M.
Buzug
,
IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging
30
,
1284
(
2011
).
18.
D. B.
Twieg
,
Med. Phys.
10
,
610
(
1983
).
19.
S.
Ljunggren
,
J. Magn. Reson.
54
,
338
(
1983
).
20.
P.
Goodwill
,
A.
Tamrazian
,
L.
Croft
,
C.
Lu
,
E.
Johnson
,
R.
Pidaparthi
,
R.
Ferguson
,
A.
Khandhar
,
K.
Krishnan
, and
S.
Conolly
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
98
(
2011
).
21.
A.
Oppenheim
and
R.
Schafer
,
Discrete-Time Signal Processing
, 2nd ed. (
Prentice Hall
,
1999
).
22.
J. I.
Jackson
,
C. H.
Meyer
,
D. G.
Nishimura
, and
A.
Macovski
,
IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging
10
,
473
(
1991
).
23.
R. C.
González
and
R. E.
Woods
,
Digital Image Processing
(
Prentice Hall
,
2008
). .
24.
W.
Houston
,
Phys. Rev.
29
,
478
(
1927
).
25.
J.
Ferrucci
and
D.
Stark
,
Am. J. Roentgenol.
155
,
943
(
1990
).
26.
S.
Biederer
,
T.
Knopp
,
T.
Sattel
,
K.
Lüdtke-Buzug
,
B.
Gleich
,
J.
Weizenecker
,
J.
Borgert
, and
T.
Buzug
,
J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.
42
,
205007
(
2009
).
27.
R. M.
Ferguson
,
K. R.
Minard
, and
K. M.
Krishnan
,
J. Magn. Magn. Mater.
321
,
1548
(
2009
).
28.
J.
Weizenecker
,
B.
Gleich
,
J.
Rahmer
,
H.
Dahnke
, and
J.
Borgert
,
Phys. Med. Biol.
54
,
L1
(
2009
).
29.
R. M.
Ferguson
,
K. R.
Minard
,
A. P.
Kandhar
, and
K. M.
Krishnan
,
Med. Phys.
38
,
1619
(
2011
).
You do not currently have access to this content.