Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) have been a key factor in the development and commercialization of ultrasensitive electric and magnetic measurement systems. In many cases, SQUID instrumentation offers the ability to make measurements where no other methodology is possible. We review the main aspects of designing, fabricating, and operating a number of SQUID measurement systems. While this article is not intended to be an exhaustive review on the principles of SQUID sensors and the underlying concepts behind the Josephson effect, a qualitative description of the operating principles of SQUID sensors and the properties of materials used to fabricate SQUID sensors is presented. The difference between low and high temperature SQUIDs and their suitability for specific applications is discussed. Although SQUID electronics have the capability to operate well above , most applications tend to be at lower frequencies. Specific examples of input circuits and detection coil configuration for different applications and environments, along with expected performance, are described. In particular, anticipated signal strength, magnetic field environment (applied field and external noise), and cryogenic requirements are discussed. Finally, a variety of applications with specific examples in the areas of electromagnetic, material property, nondestructive test and evaluation, and geophysical and biomedical measurements are reviewed.
SHE model 330X rf SQUID electronics.
Quantum Design model 2000 rf SQUID electronics.