We present an approach to reduce the convective flow in an electrostatically levitated liquid droplet to such an extent that diffusion is the dominant mechanism for mass transport, thus enabling direct measurements of atomic diffusion in reactive liquids at elevated temperatures. Convection is minimized by containerless processing, and reducing temperature variations in the sample. The diffusion tracer is deposited in situ in the electrostatic levitation device used for containerless processing. Uniform noncontact heating of the sample is achieved by laser heating with multiple beams arranged symmetrically, e.g., in a tetrahedral geometry. The expected temperature variations and the resulting convection flows are estimated for a Zr-based glass-forming alloy. The analysis suggests that diffusion experiments are possible throughout the entire undercooled liquid temperature range of this alloy and, in microgravity, up to 50K above the liquidus temperature.

1.
W.-K.
Rhim
,
S. K.
Chung
,
D.
Barber
,
K. F.
Man
,
G.
Gutt
,
A. J.
Rulison
, and
R. E.
Spjut
,
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
64
,
2961
(
1993
).
2.
T.
Meister
,
H.
Werner
,
G.
Lohoefer
,
D. M.
Herlach
, and
H.
Unbehauen
,
Control Eng. Pract.
11
,
117
(
2003
).
3.
A. J.
Rulison
and
W.-K.
Rhim
,
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
65
,
695
(
1994
).
4.
M. B.
Robinson
,
D.
Li
,
J. R.
Rogers
,
R. W.
Hyers
,
L.
Savage
, and
T. J.
Rathz
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
77
,
3266
(
2000
).
5.
T.
Ishikawa
,
P.-F.
Paradis
,
T.
Itami
, and
S.
Yoda
,
J. Chem. Phys.
118
,
7912
(
2003
).
6.
Y. J.
Kim
,
R.
Busch
,
W. L.
Johnson
,
A. J.
Rulison
, and
W.-K.
Rhim
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
68
,
1057
(
1996
).
7.
C. W.
Morton
,
W. H.
Hofmeister
,
R. J.
Bayuzick
,
A. J.
Rulison
, and
J. L.
Watkins
,
Acta Mater.
46
,
6033
(
1998
).
8.
S. K.
Chung
,
D. B.
Thiessen
, and
W.-K.
Rhim
,
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
67
,
3175
(
1996
).
9.
P.-F.
Paradis
,
T.
Ishikawa
, and
S.
Yoda
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
83
,
4047
(
2003
).
10.
W.-K.
Rhim
and
T.
Ishikawa
,
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
69
,
3628
(
1998
).
11.
W.-K.
Rhim
,
K.
Ohsaka
,
P.-F.
Paradis
, and
R. E.
Spjut
,
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
70
,
2796
(
1999
).
12.
K. F.
Kelton
,
G. W.
Lee
,
A. K.
Gangopadhyay
,
R. W.
Hyers
,
T. J.
Rathz
,
J. R.
Rogers
,
M. B.
Robinson
, and
D. S.
Robinson
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
90
,
195504
(
2003
).
13.
P.-F.
Paradis
,
T.
Ishikawa
, and
S.
Yoda
,
J. Non-Cryst. Solids
312
,
309
(
2002
).
14.
H. F.
Bauer
,
Appl. Math. Mech.
65
,
461
(
1985
).
15.
H. F.
Bauer
,
Ingenieria, Mexico
52
,
263
(
1982
).
16.

Thus, Bauer’s series expansion for Marangoni flow converges only if the multipole expansion for temperature converges.

17.

The dynamic Bond number differs from the usual definition of the Bond number in that both density and surface tension are differentiated with respect to temperature.

18.
J.
Schroers
,
S.
Bossuyt
,
W.-K.
Rhim
,
J.
Li
,
Z.
Zhou
, and
W. L.
Johnson
,
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
75
,
4523
(
2004
).
19.
W.-K.
Rhim
and
P.-F.
Paradis
,
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
70
,
4652
(
1999
).
20.
L. J.
Lewis
,
Phys. Rev. B
44
,
4245
(
1991
).
21.
U.
Geyer
,
S.
Schneider
,
W. L.
Johnson
,
Y.
Qiu
,
T. A.
Tombrello
, and
M.-P.
Macht
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
75
,
2364
(
1995
).
22.
K.
Knorr
,
M.-P.
Macht
,
K.
Freitag
, and
H.
Mehrer
,
J. Non-Cryst. Solids
250
,
669
(
1999
).
23.
P.
Lehmann
,
T.
Alboussiere
,
R.
Moreau
, and
J.
Uspenski
,
J. Chim. Phys. Phys.-Chim. Biol.
6
,
1105
(
1996
).
24.
L. B.
Jalbert
,
F.
Rosenberger
, and
R. M.
Banish
,
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter
10
,
7113
(
1998
).
25.
J. I. D.
Alexander
,
J. F.
Ramus
, and
F.
Rosenberger
,
Microgravity Sci. Technol.
9
,
158
(
1996
).
26.
S.
Yasuhiro
,
T.
Sato
,
N.
Imaishi
,
A.
Hirata
, and
M.
Kumagawa
,
Microgravity Sci. Technol.
9
,
237
(
1996
).
27.
G.
Mathiak
,
A.
Griesche
,
K. H.
Kraatz
, and
G.
Frohberg
,
J. Non-Cryst. Solids
207
,
412
(
1996
).
28.
C. C.
Hays
,
J.
Schroers
,
U.
Geyer
,
S.
Bossuyt
,
N.
Stein
, and
W. L.
Johnson
,
Mater. Sci. Forum
343-3
,
103
(
2000
).
29.
C. C.
Hays
,
J.
Schroers
,
T. J.
Rathz
,
R. W.
Hyers
,
J. R.
Rogers
,
M. B.
Robinson
, and
W. L.
Johnson
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
79
,
1605
(
2001
).
30.
S.
Mukerjee
,
J.
Schroers
,
Z.
Zhou
,
W. L.
Johnson
, and
W.-K.
Rhim
,
Acta Mater.
52
,
3689
(
2004
).
31.
A. L.
Greer
,
Nature (London)
402
,
132
(
1999
).
32.
S. C.
Glade
,
R.
Busch
,
D. S.
Lee
,
W. L.
Johnson
,
R. K.
Wunderlich
, and
H.-J.
Fecht
,
J. Appl. Phys.
87
,
7242
(
2000
).
33.
W. L.
Johnson
,
J.
Schroers
,
U.
Geyer
, and
C. C.
Hays
, SRD, NASA (
1999
).
34.
S.
Mukherjee
,
W. L.
Johnson
, and
W.-K.
Rhim
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
86
,
014104
(
2005
).
You do not currently have access to this content.