A three-wave heterodyne O-mode reflectometer was developed and tested in experiments on the T-10 tokamak. Three launched waves are obtained by frequency splitting due to amplitude modulation with a p-i-n diode. Source frequencies from 36 to 78 GHz were used in the experiments. The ability of the reflectometer to measure simultaneously density profile characteristics, such as the time evolution of the relative phase and the unambiguous time delay of the reflected wave together with small-scale density fluctuation characteristics such as the radial and poloidal correlation lengths, was demonstrated with T-10 experimental data. The reflectometer can provide important information about fine changes in the density profile during sawteeth and low-m magnetohydrodynamics oscillations. Poloidal correlation measurements make it possible to measure transverse turbulence velocities and velocity shear. It was shown that both types of correlation measurements enable one to distinguish different types of turbulence according to the values of their correlation lengths, and that probing the plasma from several poloidal directions simultaneously greatly enhances the potential of reflectometry for the investigation of turbulence physics. In particular, it was found that different turbulence types may be either poloidally symmetrical or have much higher amplitude on the low field side of the discharge. Probing with several poloidal directions also enables one to make toroidal correlation measurements over long distances at certain resonant q values after one or two turns of magnetic field line around the major tokamak axis. In fact, correlations near 40% were observed experimentally. Such measurements may give additional information about turbulence characteristics on the one hand and allow radial q profile measurements on the other hand. In addition, the capabilities of reflectometry may be enhanced with the application of a proposed holography approach.

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